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# Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids,

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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2013, 03:17
Can someone help with option B here?

The conclusion is kind of causal, X leads to Y (C causes stimulation). Shouldn't the assumption be , there is no alternate reason that can cause Y? Option B states the same.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 21:00
3
My explanation:

E

Scenario
Two Groups of Mice
Group 1: the control group and had no chemical blocking cannabinoids.

Result
Group 2 showed less interest in eating therefore cannabinoids function is stimulating appetite.

Negation of E: However, what if the chemical used in blocking cannabinoids by itself blocked the appetite? Then, this invalidates the experiment and thus the argument, and we can't say that cannabinoids stimulates appetite, because the chemical would be the one responsible for blocking the appetite.

Moderators, please change the OA to E according to Stacey's reply here: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/cr- ... -t682.html.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 03:25
The answer is option E. My understanding :

Conclusion : Cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite

Premises : Cannabinoids stimulate inhibitors ; Mice were injected with chemicals to counter the effect of Cannabinoids ; Mice showed less appetite.
The author reasons that because cannabinoids did not reach the receptors and mice showed lesser appetite, cannabinoids stimulate appetite.

Pre-thinking : This is an assumption type question, so what is the gap between the stated facts and the conclusion ? What if something else led to reduced appetite ? We need to negate this possibility.

Sift through the answer options; only E fits the bill. B is in the race but looses out .... because how does it matter if it is the "only" substance or not ? Run a negation test on E and your conclusion breaks.

Hence E it is !
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2016, 08:27
yes... Thanks for the clarifiction...

anandsebastin wrote:
HIMALAYA wrote:
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammalsâ€™ milk that stimulate the appetite.

if other than Cannabinoids stimulates the appetite, the resercher would have not found chamically injected mice not having intreset in feeding.

I disagree. Talking from a researcher's point of view, the mice would still have access to the mother's milk. A standard technique to study the actions of a substance is to block it using an inhibitor of the substance in study. One of the main concerns is the effects that the inhibitor may have by itself. So, E is the logical answer.
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2016, 22:09
nakib77 wrote:
Q14.
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoids from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mothersâ€™ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammalsâ€™ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

Acronym used for Cannabinoids: C

Conclusion: C stimulates appetite.

We can falsify this statement if the chemical that scientist used didn't interfere with appetite.

This takes option E as our answer.
Option B was very close but I left this for this reason:
Let's say C in not the only chemical. But there is a chance that C stimulates some other hormone and in result that hormone stimulates appetite. Still C is related to appetite.

property of assumption is that it must be true under all circumstances. B fails here.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2016, 22:34
This an Assumption and Causality type of question - in which the speaker concludes that one occurrence caused another, and that the speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that the stated cause will always produce the effect.

One way to attack such a question is to find an alternate cause for the stated effect and make sure that the author eliminates it.

In our case cannabinoides might cause mice to lose their appetite. what if something else is causing it?
Since the author assumes that nothing else causes the loss of appetite - he must assume that no other cause exists (e.g. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite). Therefore, E is the correct answer.

Also, E acts as a defender in this assumption question, and if you negate E - the conclusion falls apart.

The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does independently inhibit the appetite. So, if the chemical inhibits the appetite, then the author must be wrong in concluding that cannabinoides inhibits the appetite
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Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2016, 07:36
chetan2u Can you please explain option B here.

This is what I think -
Conclusion: Cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

(B) Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.
Negated Option (B) Cannabinoids are not the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.
So, if Cannabinoids are not the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite let us assume that three other substance say X,Y, and Z too are responsible for stimulating the appetite.

Now, if the injected chemical inhibits cannabinoids and accordingly concludes that the mice showed far less interest in feeding, how can we comment on chemical's reaction with X, Y or Z. It may be the case that the chemical inhibits X, Y, and Z ; in this case one cannot make it out if it is the cannabinoids or X or Y or Z was responsible for stimulation of appetite. So, this does not break the conclusion.

Am I thinking on the right grounds?
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Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2016, 09:05
Keats wrote:
chetan2u Can you please explain option B here.

This is what I think -
Conclusion: Cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

(B) Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.
Negated Option (B) Cannabinoids are not the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.
So, if Cannabinoids are not the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite let us assume that three other substance say X,Y, and Z too are responsible for stimulating the appetite.

Now, if the injected chemical inhibits cannabinoids and accordingly concludes that the mice showed far less interest in feeding, how can we comment on chemical's reaction with X, Y or Z. It may be the case that the chemical inhibits X, Y, and Z ; in this case one cannot make it out if it is the cannabinoids or X or Y or Z that was responsible for stimulation of appetite. So, this does not break the conclusion.

Am I thinking on the right grounds?

Yes, your thinking for option B is absolutely correct. Even though we have other things stimulating the appetite, we are still not able to break the conclusion. Hence, B would be taken out on the same thinking.
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2016, 07:12
1
Keats wrote:
chetan2u Can you please explain option B here.

This is what I think -
Conclusion: Cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

(B) Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.
Negated Option (B) Cannabinoids are not the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.
So, if Cannabinoids are not the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite let us assume that three other substance say X,Y, and Z too are responsible for stimulating the appetite.

Now, if the injected chemical inhibits cannabinoids and accordingly concludes that the mice showed far less interest in feeding, how can we comment on chemical's reaction with X, Y or Z. It may be the case that the chemical inhibits X, Y, and Z ; in this case one cannot make it out if it is the cannabinoids or X or Y or Z was responsible for stimulation of appetite. So, this does not break the conclusion.

Am I thinking on the right grounds?

Hi Keats,

Just few points...
1) Q does not seem to be a very good Q by the standards of GMAT. It is from gmat prep requires to be checked..
2) reason for above is that the assumption is nothing but the conclusion itself...
3) But if it is given as assumption so surely it will be correct as conclusion...
4) Now the reasoning taken by you..
It will be better to take it as ...
We are talking of " in mammals' milk" but what if there is something in mice body that stimulates feeding but gets affected by the chemical..
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2016, 07:23
Hmm. I appreciate your point chetan2u.

Also, yes, this is a GMATPrep problem. It was #40 on my exam, so I had almost no time to mark a response.
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2016, 07:57
1
E is correct.

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mother's milk. --> doesn't do anything to help shield the claim from counterargument
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite. --> that's great and all, but we don't know if the chemical inhibitor is having any effect
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed. --> irrelevant
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids. --> outside of the scope
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite. --> bingo! using this choice, we eliminate the possibility for a counterargument on these grounds
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2016, 09:21
nakib77 wrote:
Q14.
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoids from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mothersâ€™ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammalsâ€™ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.

basically the logical chain here is :
milk->cannabinoids -> receptors -> appetite

so the conclusion says: more cannabinoids -> more appetite

Now, the logical meaning of E might be confusing becuase the mice did not eat, but since this is an assumption question, let try the negation test:
- if E is correct, that is: more chemical -> more appetite, than we found another factor in the experiment that could have caused "more appetite".

Negation of this option is one of the assumptions, since it makes the relationships "more cannabinoids -> more appetite" likely.
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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23 May 2017, 01:24
An in depth explanation why A is not the answer?
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Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2017, 11:17
E is the correct option

key words are 'probably' in the concluding sentence and 'independently inhibit' in the option E.
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 09:07
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2017, 13:06
I got the correct answer. But I am still not exactly clear as to how can B and C be eliminated. Can someone please explain in simple language preferably with an example?
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2017, 09:38
sam2016 wrote:
I got the correct answer. But I am still not exactly clear as to how can B and C be eliminated. Can someone please explain in simple language preferably with an example?

When cannabinoids are blocked from reaching their receptors in the brains of injected mice, those mice show less interest in feeding. The author thus concludes that "cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite." If that conclusion is valid, it would explain why appetite decreases when the cannabinoids are blocked.

Quote:
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.

The author concludes that cannabinoids probably stimulate the appetite but not that cannabinoids are the ONLY substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite. For example, perhaps there are a couple other compounds in the milk that stimulate the appetite. Still, if one of those substances is blocked, we would expect appetite to decrease. Thus, the author's argument does not rely on choice (B).

Quote:
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.

Again, the author concludes that cannabinoids probably stimulate the appetite but not that cannabinoids are the ONLY factor affecting appetite. Perhaps mothers of newborn mice DO normally make efforts to encourage their babies to feed. Those efforts AND the cannabinoids could both serve to increase appetite. If either factor is removed, we would expect appetite to decrease. The author's argument does not rely on the assumption stated in choice (C).

I hope this helps! (And is anybody impressed that I refrained from making a dumb, obvious joke about cannabis and my home state of Colorado? I didn't think so...)
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Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2018, 18:45
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoids from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Conclusion - CAN -> Stimulates the appetite
Reasoning - Chemical stopped CAN from recaching the receptor in the brain and so receptor was not stimulated.
What are we looking for - Something , which is a must for above conclusion in the light of above reasoning.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mothersâ€™ milk.
-- Irrelevant -

B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammalsâ€™ milk that stimulate the appetite.
-- It was tempting for me. But there can be other substance in milk but may be they are suppressed after adding the chemical. So we need to ignore this now.

C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
-- Irrelevant

D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
--Irrelevant

E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.
-- Correct choice. (Something else is now the cause of the effect). Must be true for the causality to be correct.
Re: Q14. The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids,   [#permalink] 12 Jun 2018, 18:45

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