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# Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South

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Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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22 May 2008, 07:21
2
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Question 1
00:00

Question Stats:

80% (02:39) correct 20% (05:01) wrong based on 25

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Question 2
00:00

Question Stats:

46% (01:36) correct 54% (00:20) wrong based on 28

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Question 3
00:00

Question Stats:

78% (01:35) correct 22% (00:59) wrong based on 27

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Question 4
00:00

Question Stats:

68% (01:36) correct 32% (03:18) wrong based on 25

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By the sixteenth century, the Incas
of South America ruled an empire that
extended along the Pacific coast and
Line Andean highlands from what is now
(5) Ecuador to central Chile. While most
of the Incas were self-sufficient
agriculturists, the inhabitants of the
highland basins above 9,000 feet were
constrained by the kinds of crops they
(10) could cultivate. Whereas 95 percent
of the principal Andean food crops can
be cultivated below 3,000 feet, only
9,000 feet. Given this unequal
(15) resource distribution, highland Incas
lower, warmer climatic zones in order
to enlarge the variety and quantity of
their foodstuffs. In most of the prein-
(20) dustrial world, the problem of different
resource distribution was resolved by
which the end consumer exercised
little control. Although the peoples
(25) of the Andean highlands participated
in such networks, they relied primarily
on the maintenance of autonomous
production forces in as many ecological
zones as possible. The
(30) commodities produced in these
zones were extracted, processed,
and transported entirely by members
of a single group.
This strategy of direct access
(35) to a maximum number of ecological
zones by a single group is called
vertical economy. Even today,
one can see Andean communities
maintaining use rights simultaneously
(40) to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to
potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet,
and to plots of warm-land crops in
regions below 6,000 feet. This
strategy has two principal variations.
(45) The first is “compressed verticality,”
in which a single village resides in
a location that permits easy access
to closely located ecological zones.
Different crop zones or pasturelands
(50) are located within a few days walk of
the parent community. Community
members may reside temporarily
in one of the lower zones to manage
the extraction of products unavailable
(55) in the homeland. In the second variation,
called the “vertical archipelago,”
the village exploits resources in widely
dispersed locations, constituting a
series of independent production
(60) “islands.” In certain pre-Columbian
Inca societies, groups were sent from
the home territory to establish permanent
satellite communities or colonies
in distant tropical forests or coastal
(65) locations. There the colonists grew
crops and extracted products for their
own use and for transshipment back
to their high-altitude compatriots.
In contrast to the compressed
(70) verticality system, in this system,
commodities rather than people
circulated through the archipelago.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q4:
According to the passage, which of the following is true about the pre-industrial
long distance trade networks mentioned in line 22 ?

A. They were not used extensively in most of the pre-industrial world.
B. They were used to some extent by the people of the Andean highlands.
C. They were not an effective means of solving the problem of different resource distribution.
D. They necessitated the establishment of permanent satellite communities in
widely dispersed locations.
E. They were useful only for the transportation of products from warm climatic zones.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q5:
According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q6:
The passage suggests that as a way of addressing the problem of different resource
distribution in the preindustrial world, the practice of vertical economy differed from
the use of long-distance trade networks in that vertical economy allowed

A. commodities to reach the end consumer faster
B. a wide variety of agricultural goods to reach the end consumer
C. a single group to maintain control over the production process
E. greater use of self-sufficient agricultural techniques

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The passage suggests that for an Andean highland village attempting to resolve
the problem of unequal resource distribution, the strategy known as compressed
verticality would probably be inappropriate for which of the following situations?

A. The village’s location is such that it is difficult for the village to participate
B. The village does not have the resources to establish permanent satellite communities
in production zones beyond the home community.
C. The warm-land crop regions nearest to the village are all below 6,000 feet.
variety of ecological zones.
E. The nearest crop production zones are located below the village, while the nearest
pasturelands are located above the village.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 29 Jun 2015, 09:17, edited 1 time in total.
Formatted
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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24 May 2008, 16:15
I get B E C and D
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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25 May 2008, 16:08
4 - B
5 - E
6 - C
7 - D

What's the OA?
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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26 May 2008, 11:06
whats the OA??
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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26 May 2008, 11:42

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D.

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2009, 08:42
Excuse me! What test does the passage come from?
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2013, 06:53
mymba99 wrote:

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D.

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills.

same here ... got just the first one right ...

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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2015, 03:03
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2015, 00:25
11mins.
Goofed up in second question, which spoiled my timing. Can be done in < 9-mins.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2015, 11:31
Can anyone explain answer of 5th question...

Q5:
According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities
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Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 00:34
1
KUDOS
Difficult passage , took 3 mins 30 seconds to read and 10 mins to answer . All correct though i wasn't sure about second answer

Key Takeaways from the passage
-The author talks about sustainability models used by the Incas
- He then discusses multiple strategies used by the Incan people

1.
“by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control. Although the
peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks‖
Option (B) is a clear word justification of the above and is hence the right answer choice.

2.
“they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones
as possible‖
Option (E) is a clear word justification of the above excerpt and is hence the right answer.

3.
The passage suggests…
“The commodities produced in these zones were extracted, processed, and transported entirely by
members of a single group.
This strategy of direct access to a maximum number of ecological zones by a single group is called
vertical economy.‖
Option (C ) is the correct answer as it is a clear word justification of the above.

4.
The passage suggests…
“The first is ―"compressed verticality" , in which a single village resides in a location that permits easy
Hence if the village did not have easy access to ecological zones, then ―"compressed verticality" would
be inappropriate. Hence option (D) is the right answer choice.
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Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2016, 21:01
I am not sure whether the sentences below have typos or some grammatical structures that I struggle to understand.

1. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet.

I think "use rights" does not comply with the grammar rules in this sentence or I am missing something.

2. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

Problem with logic. I am trying to picture how commodities rather than people circulate through the archipelago and cannot make a clear sense out of it. In both systems, compressed in archipelago, the crops were grown with a purpose to transport them back to the parent community. I cannot make any logical explanation of why the argument draws analogy between commodities and people. For this reason, I don't understand the meaning behind this sentence.

Will appreciate any help.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2016, 02:12
1
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AndreiGMAT wrote:
I am not sure whether the sentences below have typos or some grammatical structures that I struggle to understand.

1. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet.

I think "use rights" does not comply with the grammar rules in this sentence or I am missing something.

2. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

Problem with logic. I am trying to picture how commodities rather than people circulate through the archipelago and cannot make a clear sense out of it. In both systems, compressed in archipelago, the crops were grown with a purpose to transport them back to the parent community. I cannot make any logical explanation of why the argument draws analogy between commodities and people. For this reason, I don't understand the meaning behind this sentence.

Will appreciate any help.

Since RC passages are excerpts from article by various authors who can coin any new term to suit their ideas, be ready to see many new conjugate words and weird terms that do not generally exist in other form in english. The rule in RC is to understand whatever crap is thrown at you ... whether the words make sense or no sense. Its your duty to assimilate the passage, convert it into simple english or a infographic chart and then start answering the questions. If you get too caught up in the sentence composition or deducing the "CORRECT" idea behind a unfamiliar word , then you will suffer greatly. RC is like ice skating.. once you are on the ring.. keep moving and balancing.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South   [#permalink] 05 Aug 2016, 02:12
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