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# The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming

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The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 11:29
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The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 88: Sentence Correction

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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 11:30
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Quote:
(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,

So if you’re a regular visitor to the verbal forums, you might have noticed that we’re banging away at a theme: if you aren’t strict and literal with the meaning of these sentences, you’re toast. We said a lot about that in our beginners’ guide to SC, and it’s also been a theme in our QOTDs (all of which are available here).

And this is another example of it! The phrase “human beings in burning fossil fuels” sounds like the human beings are... um, in a fiery tank of coal or oil? That sounds unpleasant. Plus, I’m not sold on the phrase “most scientists agree to be caused.” Seems like “is” would be better than “to be” here. Either way, (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

Hm, the modifier “that is caused by fossil fuels” seems misplaced. It could be OK to say “scientists agree that X is true”, but we’re trying to modify the phenomenon here: “a phenomenon that is caused by fossil fuels” seems fine, but I can’t make sense of this one.

If you wanted to be conservative, you could hang onto (B) for now, but we’ll have a better option in a moment.

Quote:
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels,

Pardon my language, but this sounds awkward AF. That’s not a crime, though. (See beginners’ guide to SC, for more on why “awkwardness” shouldn’t be your first worry.) And I can’t see any DEFINITE errors here. The “that” modifier is OK, and I guess I’m cool with the possessive “human beings’ burning of fossil fuels.” I don’t like it. But the GMAT doesn’t care what I like. The meaning makes sense: human beings’ act of burning fossil fuels is indeed the thing that causes global warming.

(C) isn’t wrong. Keep it, perhaps while holding your nose.

Quote:
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,

(D) arguably sounds better than (C), but (D) messes up the meaning. Rearranging slightly, (D) is saying that “scientists agree on global warming as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuel.” First, it would make sense to say that scientists agree that global warming is a phenomenon caused by human beings, but scientists agree on it as a phenomenon isn’t right: that’s basically saying that scientists agree that it’s a phenomenon, but that’s pretty meaningless.

Second, it’s awfully weird to say that global warming is “caused by human beings who burn fossil fuel.” The act of burning fossil fuels causes global warming – not “human beings” who happen to burn fossil fuels.

I can’t totally fault you if you picked (D) over (C), but the meaning is much clearer in (C). I’d cross out (D).

Quote:
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

The argument is similar for (E) as for (D), except that “agree to be a phenomenon” is a completely wacky phrase that makes even less sense than “agree on as a phenomenon.” And in (E), global warming is caused by the fossil fuels themselves, and that’s not quite right: it’s caused by human beings’ act of burning fossil fuels. So (E) warps the meaning, too.

We’re left with (C). I don’t like it, either. But it does a better, clearer job of conveying the meaning than any of the others.
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 11:35
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The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, -Phenomenon is not caused by human beings
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, -Phenomenon is not caused by fossil fuels
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, -Correct. Phenomenon is caused by the act of burning of fossil fuels
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels, -Phenomenon is not caused by human beings
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, -Phenomenon is not caused by fossil fuels
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 11:38
[quote="souvik101990"]

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 87: Sentence Correction

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The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

global warming, a phenomenon.......correct modifier
caused by fossil fuel.......only correct in B......
hope it serves.....
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 11:42
I would go with answer choice (C). answer should contain " a phenomenon that is caused by the burning of fossil fuels". Not by human beings or by fossil fuels.
Hope this help !
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 24 Aug 2017, 07:11
1
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,-----"human beings in burning..."does not properly presents the action of human beings. it's an awkward construction

(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,--------this is a passive construction and the use of "burned" signifies that the action happend in the past and is not continuing but that is not correct. the action of burning is continuing, hence it will create problems in future

(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,------Correct. the action of human being's is correctly presented

(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,-----this changes the meaning of the sentence. now instead of a generic effect, the blame is only on human beings who burn fossil fules

(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,-----same error as B

Originally posted by niks18 on 23 Aug 2017, 12:00.
Last edited by niks18 on 24 Aug 2017, 07:11, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 12:53
mrittik800 wrote:

global warming, a phenomenon.......correct modifier
caused by fossil fuel.......only correct in B......
hope it serves.....

Hello mrittik800,

The original sentence intends to say that global warming has been caused because human beings burn fossil fuels.

However, Choice B suggests that global warming has been caused by fossil fuels. The modifier burned by human beings only provide additional information about fossil fuels. But the main cause for global warming is fossil fuels per Choice B.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 20:31
1
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

The correct sentence is c. This is a case of Noun + Noun modifier. A phenomenon is modifying global warning and that clause which immediately follows a phenomenon talks more about the phenomenon.

A is wordy and has a meaning error.
B again has a meaning error, it incorrectly implies that global warming is caused by fossil fuels.
D has the same meaning error. Yes, it is caused by human beings but how it is done by them is not clearly stated.
E is wordy and awkward.

Please comment if my explanation has any error.

Thank you
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2017, 12:07
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To make life simple, the fact is that Global warming is caused individually neither by human beings nor by the fossil fuels, but by a combination of human beings' burning of the fossils. This combination is stated only in C.
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2017, 19:34
KB04 wrote:
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

The correct sentence is c. This is a case of Noun + Noun modifier. A phenomenon is modifying global warning and that clause which immediately follows a phenomenon talks more about the phenomenon.

A is wordy and has a meaning error.
B again has a meaning error, it incorrectly implies that global warming is caused by fossil fuels.
D has the same meaning error. Yes, it is caused by human beings but how it is done by them is not clearly stated.
E is wordy and awkward.

Please comment if my explanation has any error.

Thank you

Hello KB04,

You have done a good job at solving this official sentence.

You have stated correct reasons to reject incorrect answer choices.

I would just like to say that Choice E has the same error as Choice B as this choice also says that that fossil fuels cause global warming.

Rest all is good.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2017, 21:05
GMATNinja wrote:
.

egmat wrote:
Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi experts.
I crossed out C immediately after seeing human beings' burning. That did not make sense to me. I thought it means burning of human beings. Eg. Smiths' house means the house of Smiths. Mark's register means the register of marks.
I also had an issue here with regard to the modifier. Because as far as I know, any clause beginning with , modifies the entire previous clause, I am not sure why which is not important in this sentence.
And in D, I thought agree on as a phenomenon is wrong because agree on something means an agreement where two or more parties are arriving at a consensus eg. We all agree on this point. Further, agree on as a phenomenon - as a phenomenon? Well, scientists are not a phenomenon, because as is used for comparison or for function.

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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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11 May 2018, 01:50

Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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11 May 2018, 14:41
pikolo2510 wrote:

Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

I have to admit that this made me pause for a moment. I just put more thought into the word "of" than I ever have in my life -- and I've been teaching grammar in some form or another for... ick, too many years.

Here's the issue: you're right that the word "of" can indicate possession, as in your first two examples. But the word "of" can do a ton of other things as well:

• Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver."
• Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel."

And we could go on. Prepositions are a mess in English, and plenty of them have multiple meanings -- and "of" definitely has quite a few.

I hope this helps!
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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15 May 2018, 01:04
GMATNinja wrote:
pikolo2510 wrote:

Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

I have to admit that this made me pause for a moment. I just put more thought into the word "of" than I ever have in my life -- and I've been teaching grammar in some form or another for... ick, too many years.

Here's the issue: you're right that the word "of" can indicate possession, as in your first two examples. But the word "of" can do a ton of other things as well:

• Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver."
• Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel."

And we could go on. Prepositions are a mess in English, and plenty of them have multiple meanings -- and "of" definitely has quite a few.

I hope this helps!

Hey GMATNinja

Unfortunately, i didn't get what you are trying to convey here. I even asked a couple of my friends and even they didnt get what you are trying to convey.

Sorry , but can you explain in some other way?
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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20 May 2018, 19:55
1
pikolo2510 wrote:

Hey GMATNinja

Unfortunately, i didn't get what you are trying to convey here. I even asked a couple of my friends and even they didnt get what you are trying to convey.

Sorry , but can you explain in some other way?

Ha, sorry for the confusion! Let me give it another shot.

pikolo2510 wrote:
Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

In all three of these examples, the word "of" indicates possession. Here, have another example: "the delicious crust of my pizza" = "my pizza's delicious crust." (Mmm... pizza.)

Here's the problem: in your examples, you're assuming that the word "of" ALWAYS indicates possession. And that certainly isn't always the case. "Of" can do far more than indicate possession. There are more uses of "of" than I could possibly list here, but here are a few examples again of alternate meanings for the word "of":

• Indicate membership in a broader category: "the state of Colorado" or "the business of education". These do not indicate possession -- Colorado doesn't possess the state, and education doesn't possess the business. But Colorado is an example of a state, and education is a category of business.
• Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver." This doesn't indicate possession, either: Denver does not possess "west" or Golden. The word "of" just helps us understand where two places are in relation to each other.
• Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel." Again, the meat doesn't possess the hat, stone doesn't possess the building, and fuel does not possess the burning. The word "of" just tells us something about the materials being used for a task.

Notice that the last use of the word "of" is consistent with the version in answer choice (C): in the phrase "human beings' burning of fossil fuel", "of fossil fuel" just indicates the materials used for the human beings' act of burning things.

Does that help at all?
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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20 May 2018, 20:53
(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels - "human beings in burning fossil fuels" is not correct.
(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings - a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels- not correct
(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels - Correct
(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels - phenomenon caused by human beings is not correct
(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings - phenomenon caused by fossil fuels is not correct

Ans: C
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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20 May 2018, 22:49
GMATNinja wrote:
pikolo2510 wrote:

Hey GMATNinja

Unfortunately, i didn't get what you are trying to convey here. I even asked a couple of my friends and even they didnt get what you are trying to convey.

Sorry , but can you explain in some other way?

Ha, sorry for the confusion! Let me give it another shot.

pikolo2510 wrote:
Sam's book ----> book of sam

Black panther's fighting skills ----> Fighting skills of Black Panther

human beings' burning of fossil fuel ----> burning of fossil fuel of human beings?

The last one doesn't make sense. Hence I crossed out C.

In all three of these examples, the word "of" indicates possession. Here, have another example: "the delicious crust of my pizza" = "my pizza's delicious crust." (Mmm... pizza.)

Here's the problem: in your examples, you're assuming that the word "of" ALWAYS indicates possession. And that certainly isn't always the case. "Of" can do far more than indicate possession. There are more uses of "of" than I could possibly list here, but here are a few examples again of alternate meanings for the word "of":

• Indicate membership in a broader category: "the state of Colorado" or "the business of education". These do not indicate possession -- Colorado doesn't possess the state, and education doesn't possess the business. But Colorado is an example of a state, and education is a category of business.
• Indicate a directional relationship: "Golden is west of Denver." This doesn't indicate possession, either: Denver does not possess "west" or Golden. The word "of" just helps us understand where two places are in relation to each other.
• Indicate the material being used for something: "a hat made of meat", "a building of stone", or "the burning of fuel." Again, the meat doesn't possess the hat, stone doesn't possess the building, and fuel does not possess the burning. The word "of" just tells us something about the materials being used for a task.

Notice that the last use of the word "of" is consistent with the version in answer choice (C): in the phrase "human beings' burning of fossil fuel", "of fossil fuel" just indicates the materials used for the human beings' act of burning things.

Does that help at all?

Thanks a ton GMATNinja

I understood what you are trying to convey
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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming  [#permalink]

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21 May 2018, 03:25
The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats.[/quote]

(A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels,

(B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

(C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels,

(D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels,

(E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

Clearly C makes sense. All the other choices say - GW, a phenomenon caused by either HB or by FF", and this is wrong.

It is the act of burning of fossil fuels that cause GW.

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Re: The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming &nbs [#permalink] 21 May 2018, 03:25
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