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# rc - science

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VP
Joined: 22 Nov 2007
Posts: 1079

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rc - science [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2008, 02:47
Earth’s surface consists of rigid
plates that are constantly shifting and
jostling one another. Plate movements
Line are the surface expressions of motions
(5) in the mantle—the thick shell of rock
that lies between Earth’s crust and its
metallic core. Although the hot rock of
22
the mantle is a solid, under the tre-
mendous pressure of the crust and
(10) overlying rock of the mantle, it flows like
a viscous liquid. The mantle’s motions,
analogous to those in a pot of boiling
water, cool the mantle by carrying hot
material to the surface and returning
(15) cooler material to the depths. When
the edge of one plate bends under
another and its cooler material is con-
sumed in the mantle, volcanic activity
occurs as molten lava rises from the
(20) downgoing plate and erupts through the
overlying one.
Most volcanoes occur at plate
boundaries. However, certain “mis-
placed” volcanoes far from plate
(25) edges result from a second, indepen-
dent mechanism that cools the deep
interior of Earth. Because of its prox-
imity to Earth’s core, the rock at the
base of the mantle is much hotter than
(30) rock in the upper mantle. The hotter the
mantle rock is, the less it resists flow-
ing. Reservoirs of this hot rock collect
in the base of the mantle. When a
reservoir is sufficiently large, a sphere
(35) of this hot rock forces its way up
through the upper mantle to Earth’s
surface, creating a broad bulge in the
topography. The “mantle plume” thus
formed, once established, continues to
(40) channel hot material from the mantle
base until the reservoir is emptied.
The surface mark of an established
plume is a hot spot—an isolated
region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain
(45) located far from the edge of a surface
plate. Because the source of a hot
spot remains fixed while a surface
plate moves over it, over a long period
of time an active plume creates a chain
(50) of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a
track marking the position of the plume
relative to the moving plate. The natural
history of the Hawaiian island chain
clearly shows the movement of the
Pacific plate over a fixed plume.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q22:
The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
A. the composition of Earth’s mantle
B. how the Hawaiian Islands were created
C. what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
D. two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
E. why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries
Answer:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q23:
It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition
Answer:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q24:
The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to
A. provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
B. identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
C. call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
D. illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
E. provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface
Answer:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q25:
According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?
A. An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
B. Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
C. Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
D. The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
E. A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core
Answer:

Please, give explanations with answers. most important 23th question.

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Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Jan 2008
Posts: 286

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Re: rc - science [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2008, 11:15
Q22:
The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
D. two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q23:
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age - They occur as plate moves
Answer:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q24:
The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to
E. provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface
Answer:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q25:
According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?
A. An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
E. A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core
Answer: Between A and E and I checked E is the answer here.

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Director
Joined: 14 Oct 2007
Posts: 751

Kudos [?]: 232 [0], given: 8

Location: Oxford
Schools: Oxford'10
Re: rc - science [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2008, 13:52
22.D - Pretty obvious, discussion about two difference volcanic mechanisms

23.B - explanation below
Quote:
A. a curved outline - can't infer this since what if the plate moved in a zig-zag fashion or in a straight line?
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age this is true since when plates move, the volcanoes will be different at each time of eruption in the hotspot chain of volcanoes
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another this is not a HotSpot volcano, this is the other type, so eliminate
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains in a hotspot, only one chain on volcanoes exist, far from the boundary where other chains are
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition irrelevant

24.E - this is an easy one, here Hawaiian islands are an example of the mantle plume volcanoes

25.E - another clear one, right from the passage

Kudos [?]: 232 [0], given: 8

Re: rc - science   [#permalink] 08 Jun 2008, 13:52
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# rc - science

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