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reading comprehension

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Joined: 05 Sep 2016
Posts: 18
reading comprehension  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2018, 04:05
One of the most important tasks of ethical analysis is to deliver us from
our unrecognized prejudices about right and wrong. For ethicist Paul
Taylor perhaps no prejudice is so deeply ingrained as speciesism, the
view that members of the human species deserve treatment superior to
that accorded members of other species.
In place of speciesism, Taylor proposes a new theory of
environmental ethics based on ―the biocentric outlook.‖ This outlook
asserts that humans are equal members of the earth‘s community of life
and that they and members of other species are interdependent. It
further sees all organisms as teleological centres of life in the sense that
each is a unique individual pursuing its own best interests by its own
means and that ―humans are not inherently superior to other living
Taylor claims that the theory provides the foundation and justification
for ―respect for nature,‖ the only moral attitude suitable to have towards
earth‘s creatures. Respect for nature requires both recognizing that wild
plants and animals have inherent worth, and following the moral norm
that ―living things ought not to be harmed or interfered with in nature.‖
Taylor claims that human behaviour toward nonhumans ought to be
guided by the rules of non-maleficence and non-interference, as well the
rule of fidelity and the rule of restitutive justice. These rules prohibit,
respectively: harming any entity in the natural environment; restricting
the freedom of natural entities or ecosystems so that they cannot exist in
a wild state; mistreating any wild animal, as often occurs during hunting
or fishing; and failing to make amends when one wrongs a wild plant or
animal in any way.
One problem is with Taylor‘s scheme that both accords ―inherent
worth‖ to all plants, animals, and humans, and then requires
compensation for every intrusion, use, or control (done even for a good
reason) affecting any living entity. If everyone has duties of
compensation to virtually every other living entity, as indeed we must
under Taylor‘s scheme, then applying Taylor‘s ethics is complex,
cumbersome, and unworkable.
Taylor claims repeatedly that ―all wild living things in the Earth‘s
natural ecosystems‖ possess inherent worth. Yet he admits that there are
very few wild things in genuinely natural ecosystems—ecosystems wholly
free from any human intrusion. This raises at least two problems. First,
why does Taylor claim that we have duties only to wild living things in
natural ecosystems? If we have only these duties, and if most living
things are not wild and not in natural ecosystems, then Taylor may fail to
deal with the bulk of problems arising in environmental ethics. Also, if
natural ecosystems are those that have experienced no human intrusion
or control, then Taylor seems to say that humans are not part of the
natural world. This contradicts Taylor‘s claim that humans are members
of earth‘s community ―in the same sense as plants and animals.
Taylor does deserve praise because he avoids many of the errors of
earlier theorists of environmental ethics. For example, Taylor explicitly
rejects Leopold‘s highly questionable belief that inanimate objects can be
moral subjects; he also disavows an organicist or Gaia view of
environmental ethics, as pursued by Leopold, Goodpaster, Lovelock, and
others, and shows why organicism errs in giving no place to the good of
individual organisms.

1. Which of the following statements reflects one of the author‘s criticisms of
Taylor‘s theory?
A. The theory denies the claim that humans have moral responsibilities
to inanimate objects.
B. The theory fails to take into account the superiority of humans to
other species.
C. The theory is overly concerned with the welfare of individual
D. The theory is not comprehensive enough to deal with many ethical
E. The theory is strongly biased towards one particular group

2. According to the passage, which of the following behaviours is most likely to be
exhibited by people who practice speciesism?
A. They take their family to see the wild tigers and elephants in the zoo.
B. Their diet consists mainly of fruits and vegetables rather than meat
and fish.
C. They plant a new tree for every one that they cut down for their own
D. They almost always live in rural areas where farming is necessary for
E. They forbid pets from entering community parks

3. Suppose that one is hiking in the Sierra Nevadas outside of Yosemite and is
suddenly attacked by a mountain lion. One could save oneself from the
attack, but only by seriously injuring or killing the mountain lion. According to
Taylor‘s ethical scheme, what should one do?
A. One should kill the mountain lion in order to save oneself.
B. One should not kill the mountain lion and thereby sacrifice oneself.
C. One should attempt to seriously injure but not kill the mountain lion in
order to save oneself.
D. Taylor‘s scheme does not give a clear answer about what to do in this
E. One should avoid hiking in the Sierra Nevada region

please help me in answering these questions Gmat experts.

The solutions are-
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Re: reading comprehension  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2018, 16:52

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Re: reading comprehension   [#permalink] 01 Feb 2018, 16:52
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