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# Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a

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Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2015, 13:21
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74% (01:32) correct 26% (02:23) wrong based on 351 sessions

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Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a jawbone fossil. Initially, the team hypothesized that the jawbone came from a young gomphothere, a now extinct distant relative of the elephant, since the teeth were those of a juvenile. The gomphothere, however, is known for its large molars, and the teeth on the jawbone would not allow enough room for the molars of an adult gomphothere to fit. Based on this evidence, the scientists conclude that the jawbone fossil provides evidence of a distinct species closely related to the gomphothere.

Which of the following, if true, would best provide evidence showing that the conclusion above is possibly flawed?

A) The manner in which teeth grow provide sufficient evidence for the accurate classification of a bygone species.
B) In order for the molars of an adult gomphothereto emerge, several juvenile teeth are first forced out of the gums to accommodate the molars.
C) The molars of an adult mastodon, a close relative of the gomphothere, are similar in size to those of an adult gomphothere.
D) Many fossils exist that have yet to be conclusively attributed to any one species.
E) The juvenile jawbone of a species related to a gomphothere is longer than the juvenile jawbone of a gomphothere.

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Re: Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2015, 09:39
can anyone explain in detail? i marked A.
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Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2015, 09:52
grr8pe wrote:
can anyone explain in detail? i marked A.

Hello grr8pe

Conclusion: the scientists conclude that the jawbone fossil provides evidence of a distinct species closely related to the gomphothere [because]
Premise: gomphothere, however, is known for its large molars, and the teeth on the jawbone would not allow enough room for the molars of an adult gomphothere to fit

This is not fossils of gomphothere because fossils' teeth took the place of molars

A) The manner in which teeth grow provide sufficient evidence for the accurate classification of a bygone species.
This is strength our conclusion because it says that manner in which teeth grow is enough for classification. So this is not gomphothere

B) In order for the molars of an adult gomphothereto emerge, several juvenile teeth are first forced out of the gums to accommodate the molars.
This is correct answer because it says that teeth that took place of molars will be push out. So this is possibly gomphothere.

C) The molars of an adult mastodon, a close relative of the gomphothere, are similar in size to those of an adult gomphothere.
Interesting fact but do not influence our link

D) Many fossils exist that have yet to be conclusively attributed to any one species.
Interesting fact but do not influence our link

E) The juvenile jawbone of a species related to a gomphothere is longer than the juvenile jawbone of a gomphothere.
Interesting fact but do not influence our link
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Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2017, 07:05
Harley1980 wrote:
Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a jawbone fossil. Initially, the team hypothesized that the jawbone came from a young gomphothere, a now extinct distant relative of the elephant, since the teeth were those of a juvenile. The gomphothere, however, is known for its large molars, and the teeth on the jawbone would not allow enough room for the molars of an adult gomphothere to fit. Based on this evidence, the scientists conclude that the jawbone fossil provides evidence of a distinct species closely related to the gomphothere.

Which of the following, if true, would best provide evidence showing that the conclusion above is possibly flawed?

A) The manner in which teeth grow provide sufficient evidence for the accurate classification of a bygone species.This could be an assumption.
B) In order for the molars of an adult gomphothereto emerge, several juvenile teeth are first forced out of the gums to accommodate the molars.In case the teeth are forced out the gums, then the space created could be sufficient for the molars to grow.
C) The molars of an adult mastodon, a close relative of the gomphothere, are similar in size to those of an adult gomphothere.So what? Nothing substantial.
D) Many fossils exist that have yet to be conclusively attributed to any one species.So?
E) The juvenile jawbone of a species related to a gomphothere is longer than the juvenile jawbone of a gomphothereMild strengthener- The problem is the jawbone itself, irrespective of its size.
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Re: Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2018, 02:14

Official Explanation Magoosh :

Premise #1 – Fossil of a jawbone is that of a juvenile animal (one theory is that it is the remains of a gomphothere)

Premise #2 - Jawbone does not have enough space to accommodate big molars (the gomphotheres are known for this).

Conclusion: Jawbone not that of a gomphothere.

(A) is tempting since it is an assumption upon which the argument rests. However, we are looking for a weakener.

(B) provides evidence that the lack of space on the jawbone of a juvenile gomphothere is not a reason to discount the theory that the jawbone is that of a gomphothere. Before gomphotheres become adults, teeth are forced out of the jawbone and that allows room for the massive molars to grow.

(C) provides information that, on the basis of the logic in the conclusion, discounts the mastodon as a viable candidate for the fossil. In other words, an adult mastodon also has large molars that wouldn’t be able to fit on the jawbone fossil. This does not weaken the conclusion, since yet another species may still have existed.

(D) does not specifically address the connection between the jawbone and the molars.

(E) The conclusion is focused on the lack of space on the jawbone fossil for big molars. A possible correct answer could be that there is a similar species that does not have as large as molar as the gomphothere. That another species has an even longer jawbone than the gomphothere does not point to the fossil at all. The fossil is discounted as coming from a gomphothere, because there is not enough space for the molars not because the jawbone is not longer enough.
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Thanks!
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Simple strategy:
“Once you’ve eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”

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Re: Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2018, 06:30
We have to weaken the argument
Scientists found jawbone -- Premise
Scientists thought jawbone was of a young G based on its teeth -- Premise
Adult G has large molars, jawbone is not of G as jawbone is not big enough to accommodate the molars -- Conclusion

Jawbone of young G is compared to an adult G. What if the teeth fall off and create space for the molars?
A. This strengthens the conclusion
B. This is what we are looking for. Correct
C. This strenghthens the conclusion
D. Out of Scope
E. Out of Scope
Re: Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a &nbs [#permalink] 02 Jun 2018, 06:30
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# Recently, a team of scientists digging through a tar pit unearthed a

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