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# Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the

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Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2007, 17:27
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Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

A. rather than developing independently from
B. rather than a type that developed independently from
C. rather than a type whose developments was independent of
D. instead of developing independently from
E. instead of a development that was independent of

Can anyone explain what's the difference between "rather than" and "instead of"?? Took a long time to eliminate the answer because i could not decide which one (rather than/instead of) is better.

Thanks,
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mau5 on 26 Aug 2013, 01:54, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: OG 10 - 143 SC [#permalink]

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16 May 2010, 04:34
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Answer A and D changes the meaning such that to suggest the egg-laying mammals grew by themselves.
Answer C introduces 2 nouns "a type" and "development"

Rather than - shows preference.
1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings.
2). I prefer starting early rather than leaving things to the last minute.

Instead of - suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another.
2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work.

"...mammals...are... a branch.... rather than... a type that developed"
"...mammals...are... a branch.... instead of... a development that was"

From this reasoning, I would go with B.
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Re: OG 10 - 143 SC [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2011, 23:06
(B)

(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of - Wrong comparison
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2012, 10:49
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Hi All,

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

Meaning Analysis:

The sentence is talking about the Australian egg-laying mammals of today. They are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution. They did not develop independently from a common ancestor of mammals.

Error Analysis:

The sentence is presenting a comparison. It says that Australian egg-laying mammals are X rather than Y.

X = a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution (a noun phrase)
Y = developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals (a noun phrase that actually starts from an action word – a gerund)

Hence, the entities compared are not parallel. Y also needs to be a noun phrase that starts with a “proper” noun entity.

PoE:

A. rather than developing independently from: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. rather than a type that developed independently from: Correct. “a type…” is parallel to “a branch…”

C. rather than a type whose developments was independent of: Incorrect. Plural subject “developments” does not agree in number with singular “was”.

D. instead of developing independently from: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in choice A.

E. instead of a development that was independent of: Incorrect. Again, the entities compared are logically not parallel.

So you see, the knowledge of correct usage or “rather than” and “instead of” is not imperative to solve this problem.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 22:57
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1) What is wrong with C?
-- See my explanation below.

2) OG says both 'rather than' and 'instead of ' can be used here though I know that ' rather than' is the correct one as it indicates preference.
OG explanation, it seems, is clearly flawed.

This problem is not testing instead/rather than as both can be used here (if used correctly). It is testing comparison, parallelism, meaning errors as specified below. May be this is what OG has also mentioned in the explanation.
(A) rather than developing independently from
--Incorrect comparison. Noun "A branch" is being compared with noun phrase "developing independently", hence does parallelism error.
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
-- Correct. This choice is concise, fixes the parallelism error by comparing "a branch" with "a type" and uses correct form of "independently from".
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
-- This does meaning error as "independent of" means "irrespective of" or "regardless of" which is nonsensical in this context. Also this choice uses noun phrase "development was independent of" and is wordier than verb "developed independently from".
(D) instead of developing independently from
-- Does same error as in choice (A)
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
-- Does the meaning error as choice (C) with use of "independent of" which doesn't fit in this context.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2013, 00:15
[quote="PraPon"]1) What is wrong with C?
-- See my explanation below.

2) OG says both 'rather than' and 'instead of ' can be used here though I know that ' rather than' is the correct one as it indicates preference.
OG explanation, it seems, is clearly flawed.

This problem is not testing instead/rather than as both can be used here (if used correctly). It is testing comparison, parallelism, meaning errors as specified below. May be this is what OG has also mentioned in the explanation.
(A) rather than developing independently from
--Incorrect comparison. Noun "A branch" is being compared with noun phrase "developing independently", hence does parallelism error.
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
-- Correct. This choice is concise, fixes the parallelism error by comparing "a branch" with "a type" and uses correct form of "independently from".
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
-- This does meaning error as "independent of" means "irrespective of" or "regardless of" which is nonsensical in this context. Also this choice uses noun phrase "development was independent of" and is wordier than verb "developed independently from".
(D) instead of developing independently from
-- Does same error as in choice (A)
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
[color=#ff0000]-- Does the meaning error as choice (C) with use of "independent of" which doesn't fit in this cont

I do not understand the difference between "independent of" and "independently from" between C and B, pls explain more fully. Thank you
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2013, 01:30
The explanation given in OG12 for answer option (E) is contrary to what e-gmat explained.

Here it is
Why (E) is incorrect OG's explanation:
While a development may appear to parallel
a branch, a development that was independent
of . . . expresses a meaning contrary to that
expressed in the original sentence. The verb
developed is preferable to the noun
development.

The point here is of the phrase "independent of/independent from". Furthermore , as per MGMAT SC Guide VAN Rule , we prefer

Verb Over Noun

For more: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ind ... 11721.html

In this option there is a NOUN = development when the verb is available VERB = developed.

This answer choice gave a good competition to the correct answer choice because as per OG12

And x rather than y

constructions are correct

Hope it helps

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TGC!
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Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2015, 11:31
Mechmeera wrote:
Can someone explain about the usage of "instead of" here in this sentence. Is it correct to use of instead of here or not.

I would say the difference bw Rather than and Instead of does not matter here in this question ..
There is comparison in the question and that comparison should be correct
Only in option b comparison is correct
Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than a type that developed independently from

If option B was : Rather than a development that was independent of
and option E was Instead of a type that developed independently from

I have would have gone with option E
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2016, 07:07
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EBITDA wrote:
Here is my go.

I discarded options A and D because the comparison of a "branch" (noun) is not parallel to "developing" (verb).

I also discarded options C and E because a "development" cannot logically "be independent of a common ancestor of mammals". Instead, it is a "type" that can logically "develop independently from a common ancestor of mammals".

Responding to a PM:

A. Wrong : The construction here is - the Australian egg-laying mammals are X rather than Y.
Here X = a branch (noun), Y = developing (present participle)..... not parallel.
C. Wrong. The meaning conveyed is erroneous: " Development of X was independent of Y" conveys the meaning that Y had no role in the development of X. (The correct usage is: " X developed independently from Y " - this conveys the meaning that Y is the ancestor of X.)
D. Wrong : The construction here is - the Australian egg-laying mammals are X instead of Y.
Here X = a branch (noun), Y = developing (present participle)...... not parallel.
E. Wrong : The construction here is - the Australian egg-laying mammals are X instead of Y.
Here X = a branch (noun), Y = development..... "development" is not supposed to be compared with "branch" - Australian egg-laying mammals are not supposed to be "developments", but "a type" that developed.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2016, 06:42
My Approach is as follows :

1. Read the option A, developing is the wrong verb tense since its happened in the past and needs a simple past verb

So focus on the split for simple past for developed and eliminate D as well.

Now with B, C and E the last split : from/of we need the split from and hence eliminate C and E

Only option left is B, read it once with the overall sentence and sounds good.

Total time taken to solve : 95 seconds
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2016, 17:53
This one was tricky. The difficulty I had from the get go was choosing instead. I thought instead was the way to go. Then I read that the GMAT prefers rather for contrast and comparisons.

Split1) Parallelism. "x rather than y" or "x instead of y". Both are correct words for contrast. The other thing to add here is that what follows x and what follows y must be in parallel. "are a branch of the main… rather than a type…" in B does it. A, C, D, and E are out.

Split2) Verb vs Noun. Whenever you see both types of words, the GMAT will always prefer verb action. In this case: "Developing" = verb form is better then "Development" = noun form. C and E are questionable, potentially out.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2017, 03:22
vagarwal wrote:
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a
branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common
ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of

Can somebody please explain the above ?

Why C is wrong?

I want to talk a lot for this problem.
I failed gmat many times and many years because I do not understand the kind of logic error gmat want us to know.

though the logic error on SC is fatally important, its concept is so simple that we can not think that gmat test this kind of error. look at the following example.

5 eggs per week is good for health

above sentence is in an engish learning book. that sentence is considered correct . but gmat consider it wrong.

gmat consider the following correct

eating 5 eggs per week is good for health.

now we see the problem. this is the point of logic error gmat want us to know.

5 egg can be good, bad, big, small, much or little. 5 eggs can not be good for health. only eating 5 eggs is possible to be good for health.

this logic point is never explained in grammar books because it is too simple. just use our common sense of this world to know the logic point. anticipate this kind of error after eliminating the 3 choices with grammatical errors

come back to our problem. I think we have an important point.

I develop independently from you. this is logic
this development is independent from that development . this is logic

this development is independent from you. this is not logic

in other words, "independent" requires the two similar things . "independent" is like a comparision signals such as " as ...as", and, so, requires the two similar things.

whose development is dependent from ancestors . this is not logic. C is wrong
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2017, 20:12
Merged topics. Please, search for the questions before posting them.
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the [#permalink]

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04 May 2017, 23:00
Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.

(A) rather than developing independently from

(B) rather than a type that developed independently from

(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of

(D) instead of developing independently from

(E) instead of a development that was independent of
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Re: Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the   [#permalink] 04 May 2017, 23:00
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