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Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2013, 02:53
anshunadir wrote:
That can refer only the preceding noun. in this sentence, noun preceding "That" is mice(plural) and therefore, plural verb "are" is used.


I just wanted to clarify the usage of that. As you have rightly pointed one of the usage.

1. That can be used to relate to the noun preceding it. When it does so then "that" becomes subject of the following clause.
2. It connects two clauses.

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2013, 03:16
Quote:
I just wanted to clarify the usage of that. As you have rightly pointed one of the usage.

1. That can be used to relate to the noun preceding it. When it does so then "that" becomes subject of the following clause.
2. It connects two clauses.


And here are the examples:

1. when "that" refers to the preceding noun, then it becomes the subject of the following dependent clause. e.g. as in the current sentence
...include brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment...
here you can replace "that" with mice => mice are placed in a stimulating environment

2. connect two clauses
e.g. It is hard to believe that XYZ has won the best performance award
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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2013, 06:09
skamal7 wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that learn new songs.
Here the sentence above is corret but i wanted to know how the "brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating is corrct!! Becoz brain growth which is singular the how come plural are fits into the sentence ..can some one pls calrify ..


Hi Skamal,

Good explanations above by Marcab and anshunadir. Adding another way to understand the relative clause.

For understanding lets remove the that clauses.

original sentence: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that learn new songs.

Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include brain growth in mice or an increase in neurons in canaries.

the "that clause" after mice is providing additional information about mice. ie where they are placed or in what environment the experiment takes place. The other "that clause" provides additional information about canaries.

Hope that helps

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2013, 03:04
Obviously, the two things included in the research: brain growth and increase in neurons and not "mice and canaries" or "brains". Hence, we eliminate B and C.

Now, "brain growing" is just horrible compared to brain grown. Hence, eliminate A.

We are now left with D and E. Both refers correctly to brain growth and increase in canaries' neurons but we our tie breaker would be the modifiers.

In D, "when placed in a stimulating env" correctly modifies mice. This is also correct in choice E.
In D, "when they learn new songs" modifies neurons. That is obviously wrong. Eliminate D.

Answer: E
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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2013, 12:05
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mohnish104 wrote:
I was confused between A and E. I guess I should keep reminding myself that GMAT doesn't prefer gerund while other viable options are available. :ouch


Hey, I'm not very good with the technical nuances, but the reasoning I used to select E over A is as follows:

1. In A, "the brain growing in mice when placed in stimulating environment" could mean either that the brain is placed in a stimulating environment or that the mice is placed in a stimulating environment. Its not clear which one it is. In the second part of A, atleast its clear that the canaries are learning the new songs.
On the other hand in E, its very clear that the mice (canaries) are put in a stimulating environment (learn new songs).

2. Neurogenesis has been defined as the production of new brain cells in the sentence. Therefore, its examples can't be body parts like brain and neurons. Examples have to be nouns that are parallel to the definition as "brain growth" and "increase in neurons" correctly are.

Hope this helps.

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2014, 22:54
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that - Not clear that what is placed in stimulating environment- mice or brain. Parallelism issue.

B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they - 2nd They is ambiguous

C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they - Both They are ambiguous. 1st They refers to Brain instead of mice and 2nd They refers to neurons instead of canaries

D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they - They refer to neuron instead of canaries

E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that - Parallel as well as unambiguous -Correct choice
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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2014, 11:41
Include + noun = correct. A out

In B and C ‘they’ is wrong because same pronoun in a sentence can’t refer two different nouns. B and C out

“the brain growth in mice” is not parallel to “canaries' neurons” D out

E correct answer

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2014, 13:04
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries
that learn new songs.


Meaning Error : As per the original sentence the examples include brain and neurons but the meaning should be the growth of brain and increase of neurons
Grammatical Error:
1. brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment
verb+ing modifier growing modifying the brain and it is correct . But the modifier "when placed in a stimulating environment" in correctly modify the brain rather the growth of the brain.
2. neurons increasing in canaries as per the meaning it should be the increase of neurons

Answer analysis
A. As mentioned above
B. "they" is ambigous (mice/brains) same with they on the 2nd part
C. canaries' can not be the reference of "they" and as mentioned on B "they" is ambiguous.
D.canaries' can not be the reference of "they"
E. Correct



coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2016, 17:51
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
trulyblessed wrote:
(4) include should be followed by X and Y, not X or Y.


I think that's what's tripping me up. I agree with you; I'm looking for an X and Y structure with the word "include". But both (4) and (5) use X or Y.



I picked (E) based on parallelism. But can someone explain why the sentence make sense when it goes like "Examples include A OR B"? Shouldn't OR be replaced by AND? "Examples include A and B" makes more sense right?

Thanks!

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2016, 20:22
Here is a visual that should help.
Attachments

Screen Shot 2016-03-27 at 8.21.42 PM.png
Screen Shot 2016-03-27 at 8.21.42 PM.png [ 80.24 KiB | Viewed 846 times ]


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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 20:57
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that


A - Two clauses are parallel only when their first word is the same. When and that ... clause are not parallel. See that E solves this issue.
B - they can refer to brains or mice -- pronoun error
C - neurons do not learn new songs - canaries do. While canaries is in possessive form it cannot be modified.
D - Not parallel
E - correct

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2016, 23:13
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that


IMO -That refers to things

in option E 'that' refers to mice & canaries

So can 'that' refers to living creatures and things except People?

Also in option B we have ambiguity in pronouns - the first "they" would automatically be "brains", and the second would automatically be "neurons"

I feel option E also has same case as in B - the first "that" would automatically be "mice", and the second 'that' automatically be "Canaries"

Please advise where my reasoning going wrong :) :( :(
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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2016, 10:21
smartguy595 wrote:
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that


IMO -That refers to things

in option E 'that' refers to mice & canaries

So can 'that' refers to living creatures and things except People?

Also in option B we have ambiguity in pronouns - the first "they" would automatically be "brains", and the second would automatically be "neurons"

I feel option E also has same case as in B - the first "that" would automatically be "mice", and the second 'that' automatically be "Canaries"

Please advise where my reasoning going wrong :) :( :(


Yes, that can definitely refer to living creatures / beings other than human beings.

Option B is wrong for another major meaning error:
The examples of Neurogenesis include "brain growth", not "mice" or "canaries".

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2016, 23:42
sayantanc2k wrote:
smartguy595 wrote:
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that


IMO -That refers to things

in option E 'that' refers to mice & canaries

So can 'that' refers to living creatures and things except People?

Also in option B we have ambiguity in pronouns - the first "they" would automatically be "brains", and the second would automatically be "neurons"

I feel option E also has same case as in B - the first "that" would automatically be "mice", and the second 'that' automatically be "Canaries"

Please advise where my reasoning going wrong :) :( :(


Yes, that can definitely refer to living creatures / beings other than human beings.

Option B is wrong for another major meaning error:
The examples of Neurogenesis include "brain growth", not "mice" or "canaries".


Is my reasoning correct for option B?

B) mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they

Here first 'they' refers to mice or brains?

Second'they' refers to "neurons" or "Canaries"? Please advise
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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2016, 05:40
They is NOT ambiguous at all - and remember that certain levels of pronoun ambiguity is allowed on the GMAT.

However, the problem with option B is that the word "include" must introduce examples, and mice (or canaries) are not examples of brain development.
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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2016, 16:53
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
growing/increasing is incorrect

B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
makes it seem as if mice/canaries are the examples

C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
they cannot refer to possessive, so they cannot refer to mice nor they cannot refer to canaries

D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
they cannot refer to possessive, so they cannot refer to canaries

E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that
Correct Answer. "brain growth" and "increase in neurons" are both nouns so parallel.

Meaning:
- There are new examples of neurogenesis (production of new brain cells)
- 1) brain growing in mice when placed in exciting environment
- 2) neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2016, 18:09
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that


"when" is replace time not replace place. so we can eliminate A,B,C and D

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2016, 13:30
hansradja wrote:
coffeeloverfreak wrote:
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that


"when" is replace time not replace place. so we can eliminate A,B,C and D


Here "when" is not replacing place, but correctly replacing time - the time when mice are placed in stimulating environment. So use of "when" does not determine whether a choice is wrong.

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2016, 05:16
documented examples should include information about brain growth and information about neurons.


when placed in a stimulating environment. What happens when they are not placed in the same environment? Does that growth shrink back to the same size?

Only E uses correct form.

brain growth in mice that || increase in neurons in canaries that

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2017, 07:39
Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells, include the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that learn new songs.

A. the brain growing in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or neurons increasing in canaries that - INCORRECT OF USAGE OF WHEN. WHEN IS USED TO DECRIBE LOCATIONS ONLY
B. mice whose brains grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries whose neurons increase when they - THEY IS AMBIGUOUS
C. mice's brains that grow when they are placed in a stimulating environment or canaries' neurons that increase when they - THEY IS INCORRECT. BRAINS ARE NOT EXPLICITLY KEPT IN SIMULATING ENVIRONMENT. LOGICALLY, MICE WOULD HAVE BEEN KEPT IN SIMULATION ENV. AND WE CAN NOT USE THEY FOR MICE HERE, BECAUSE MICE IS A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN IN THIS OPTION
D. the brain growth in mice when placed in a stimulating environment or the increase in canaries' neurons when they - SAME AS A
E. brain growth in mice that are placed in a stimulating environment or an increase in neurons in canaries that - CORRECT. PARALLEL. 'THAT' IS CORRECTLY USED TO DESCRIBE 'MICE'.

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Re: Recently documented examples of neurogenesis, the production of new br   [#permalink] 18 Mar 2017, 07:39

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