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# Recently implemented

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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2012, 22:36
in option B, use of 'and' just before fatigue is missing. and is required to complete the list sickness, sleeping and fatigue
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2012, 09:31
I have same questions as PIN has. It's official and its correct, but how come "sickness" = noun is parallel to "sleeping on the job" = simple gerund are parallel in this context?

Any experts?
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30 Oct 2012, 06:06
C and E begin with and; A, B and D do not.
Determine the correct position for and.
Here, "shift-work equations" have reduced THREE THINGS: sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers.
AND must be placed before FATIGUE, the last item in the list.
Eliminate A, B and D.

In E, have reduced and was lowered are redundant.
Eliminate E.

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04 Feb 2013, 22:58
daagh wrote:
Just one step forward- The third factor of the reduced series namely 'fatigue' should be separated by a comma to indicate that the series is going to end. Only C and E are eligible contenders. Between them, E is a jumble of unparallel and ungrammatical active and passive voice mix. C survives

Hi Daagh,

If the option B and C were like this:
B - and fatigue among shift workers, and raised
C - and fatigue among shift workers while raising
then which one would be correct ?
B - here AND would imply two independent events and second one would not be a consequence of first one
C- while would imply at 'the same time'.
So based on the meaning of the sentence which one would be correct?

Also as it is, since their is no comma before while we don't know where first list ends. How to decide this?
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2013, 10:44
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pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!
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14 Feb 2013, 15:03
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construction is of the form: have reduced A, B, and C while raising

E is wrong because the word lowered is redundant.

Last edited by StrivingTurtle on 14 Feb 2013, 16:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2013, 16:10
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Expert's post
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!

Hi there,

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

There is no problem in the parallelism of the entities in the list because all the three entities are noun entities are grammatically parallel.

Yes, “sleeping on the job” is a gerund – a noun that denotes an action. However, “sickness” and “fatigue” are not Concrete Nouns. They are “Abstract Nouns”.

By definition, Concrete Nouns are those nouns that are perceivable through five senses whereas the Abstract Nouns are those nouns that can only be experienced or felt.

There is no problem in a gerund being parallel to other abstract noun phrases. Frankly speaking, we need not even get to these grammatical complications of these entities.

Remember, this is an official question. These entities, at least “sickness” and “sleeping on the job”, are in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, rather than asking whether usage is correct or not, we must learn such usages from these sentences as they ARE correct.

Also, “raising production…” is not a verb. Note that the verb-ing word by itself cannot be a continuous/progressive verb. It must be preceded by such helping verb as is/am/are/was/were etc. to function as a verb. For example:

1. I am writing a letter.
2. He was playing soccer.
3. They are going to school.

Hence, in the correct answer choice, there is just one verb – “have reduced”.

e-gmat concept Parallelism – Helpful Tips lists out the entities that can be parallel and that cannot be parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 06 Aug 2013, 08:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2013, 05:57
egmat wrote:
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!

Hi there,

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

There is no problem in the parallelism of the entities in the list because all the three entities are noun entities are grammatically parallel.

Yes, “sleeping on the job” is a gerund – a noun that denotes an action. However, “sickness” and “fatigue” are not Concrete Nouns. They are “Abstract Nouns”.

By definition, Concrete Nouns are those nouns that are perceivable through five senses whereas the Abstract Nouns are those nouns that can only be experienced or felt.

There is no problem in a gerund being parallel to other abstract noun phrases. Frankly speaking, we need not even get to these grammatical complications of these entities.

Remember, this is an official question. These entities, at least “sickness” and “sleeping on the job”, are in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, rather than asking whether usage is correct or not, we must learn such usages from these sentences as they ARE correct.

Also, “raising production…” is not a verb. It’s a noun phrase that cannot have a tense. Note that the verb-ing word by itself cannot be a continuous/progressive verb. It must be preceded by such helping verb as is/am/are/was/were etc. to function as a verb. For example:

1. I am writing a letter.
2. He was playing soccer.
3. They are going to school.

Hence, in the correct answer choice, there is just one verb tense – “have reduced”.

e-gmat concept Parallelism – Helpful Tips lists out the entities that can be parallel and that cannot be parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

So "while raising..." is just a modifier? would be correct a sentence such as ".. and fatigue among shift workers while is raising .." ?
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20 Feb 2013, 00:48
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Correct the list: sickness....,sleeping, and fatigue. Only option C & E have this.
But in E, fatigue among shift workers was lowered distorts the parallelism.

Therefore, C.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 02:12
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!

I Presume both of the above queries have not been answered appropriately. In that, posts have advised to take
non-underlined portion as correct without any justifications.

Can any expert from MGMAT come and clear the air.

Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Action Nouns.
Complex Gerunds can be parallel to Action Nouns.
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Complex Gerunds.

Rgds,
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2013, 21:25
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TGC wrote:
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action noun. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!

I Presume both of the above queries have not been answered appropriately. In that, posts have advised to take
non-underlined portion as correct without any justifications.

Can any expert from MGMAT come and clear the air.

Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Action Nouns.
Complex Gerunds can be parallel to Action Nouns.
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Complex Gerunds.

Rgds,
TGC!

Yes, the following are accurate parallelism rules:
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Action Nouns.
Complex Gerunds can be parallel to Action Nouns.
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Complex Gerunds.

In this example, none of these three have been violated. The three parallel items in the list are sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue. "Sleeping on the job" is definitely a simple gerund phrase which cannot parallel to action nouns, but "sickness" and "fatigue" are not action nouns, so we are safe.

It is true that you should avoid making action and concrete nouns parallel. In this sentence, "sleeping on the job" has an action element to it, but the other nouns are not concrete nouns. Concrete nouns refer to things, people, places and time periods/events. "Sickness" and "fatigue" are are abstract nouns - a type of noun that refers to something with which a person cannot physically interact, i.e. concepts, ideas, experiences, states of being, feelings, etc.). There is no restriction of making simple gerunds parallel with abstract nouns.

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04 Apr 2014, 23:48
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?

My doubt is ,:

1. While is a dependent clause marker , so where si the caluse after it ?

thought I could arrive at the anwer choic c by implementing the rules of parallelism.
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05 Apr 2014, 00:56
purnima wrote:
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?

My doubt is ,:

1. While is a dependent clause marker , so where si the caluse after it ?

thought I could arrive at the anwer choic c by implementing the rules of parallelism.

Hi there,

The problem with many GMAT aspirants, including me, is that they go so much into grammar lingo that the they forget basic rules of structure and logic.

For instance:

The school has been raising funds for the development of infrastructure while diverting from its curriculum.
What is wrong with the above construction?

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07 Apr 2014, 04:48
Hi,

I am unclear about the sentence structure in this question.

Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

Meaning:
Shift-work equations have been recently implemented. They are based on studies on the human sleep cycle.
According to the question stem they have reduced 3 things:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

And these equations have raised production efficiency

Error Analysis:
1. SV pair is correct: equations-have
2. Verb is in correct tense.
3. Modifiers are properly placed
4. Parallelism : 3 entities which have been reduced have been joined with a "," & "and" coming together- thus the list has some error.

POE:
We need and to correctly connect the list without a comma before it. C and E take care of this. E has redundancy issue hence is rejected.

Thus correct choice is C.

My question is about the "while raising" part. I understand it cannot be parallel with previous list because it brings in a contrast. But what is the structure of "raising" here...? Is raising a verb-ing modifier which modifies the effect of the previous action of reducing 3 items? It can't be a verb of the subject equations because if we look at it like this that equations have done 2 things: reduced and raised? "raising" does not go with that. Thus I got confused in this step and while marking the answer was debating between A and C. What am I not understanding?

Thanks!
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08 Apr 2014, 14:32
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purnima wrote:
My doubt is ,:

1. While is a dependent clause marker , so where si the caluse after it ?

thought I could arrive at the anwer choic c by implementing the rules of parallelism.

Hi Purnima,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Yes, "while" works as a dependent clause marker ONLY WHEN it is followed by a Subject-Verb pair. When it is not, then it does works as a dependent clause marker because it is not followed by any clause.

Words such as "while, because, after, before, although" etc MAY or MAY NOT be followed by an SV pair. Depending on the structure of the sentence, we need to decide whether these words are acting as a dependent marker in the sentence or not.

In this official sentence, "while" is not working as a dependent marker because it is not followed by an SV pair.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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09 Apr 2014, 07:15
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starry9 wrote:
Hi,

I am unclear about the sentence structure in this question.

Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

Meaning:
Shift-work equations have been recently implemented. They are based on studies on the human sleep cycle.
According to the question stem they have reduced 3 things:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

And these equations have raised production efficiency

Error Analysis:
1. SV pair is correct: equations-have
2. Verb is in correct tense.
3. Modifiers are properly placed
4. Parallelism : 3 entities which have been reduced have been joined with a "," & "and" coming together- thus the list has some error.

POE:
We need and to correctly connect the list without a comma before it. C and E take care of this. E has redundancy issue hence is rejected.

Thus correct choice is C.

My question is about the "while raising" part. I understand it cannot be parallel with previous list because it brings in a contrast. But what is the structure of "raising" here...? Is raising a verb-ing modifier which modifies the effect of the previous action of reducing 3 items? It can't be a verb of the subject equations because if we look at it like this that equations have done 2 things: reduced and raised? "raising" does not go with that. Thus I got confused in this step and while marking the answer was debating between A and C. What am I not understanding?

Thanks!

Hi starry9,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Choice A is certainly incorrect because the list of three things that the "shift-work equations" have reduced are not connected properly by a marker or proper conjunction.

Now let's talk about Choice C. In this choice, while is NOT presenting contrast. If you analyze all the effects of the "shift-work equations", they are all positive effects. Yes, a few things have reduced, and something has increased. However, all these effects are positive. Hence, we do not have a contrast. Actually, "while" here presents simultaneity of action. Two things happened together by implementing "shift-work equations". For example:

I tripped while walking.
My sister finished cooking while talking to me on the phone.

Now let's talk about the role of "raising". This word here is a verb-ing noun, commonly known as gerund.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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09 Apr 2014, 07:20

It is very clear now. Thanks a lot!!
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23 Apr 2016, 09:34
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

But iam just helping myself to check wether my thinking is correct to negate the A.

If the and was appropriate this would have meant :-

The SWE have reduced sickness,reduced sleeping,reduced fatigue & reduced have raised production....

The last item is a fake parallel, hence we need to alienate from the 3 part list and add an and in front of fatigue keeping it parallel with the rest of the elements.

Guys please clarify if this should be one of the approach to go about such a question..
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24 Apr 2016, 15:00
umg4147 wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

But iam just helping myself to check wether my thinking is correct to negate the A.

If the and was appropriate this would have meant :-

The SWE have reduced sickness,reduced sleeping,reduced fatigue & reduced have raised production....

The last item is a fake parallel, hence we need to alienate from the 3 part list and add an and in front of fatigue keeping it parallel with the rest of the elements.

Guys please clarify if this should be one of the approach to go about such a question..

Yes, this approach is clear..... add the "common" element before each of the items in the list and check.
Re: Recently implemented   [#permalink] 24 Apr 2016, 15:00

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