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04 Jun 2009, 20:29
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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05 Jun 2009, 08:33
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?
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05 Jun 2009, 09:04
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno
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05 Jun 2009, 09:18
bipolarbear wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno

it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."
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05 Jun 2009, 19:50
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?

Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?
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05 Jun 2009, 19:54
Quote:

it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."

Yeah... however (D) is the answer so therefore it must be correct. Reread my post again and you'll see that's not what I was arguing. I also find lowered fatigue to be sort of strange, but that's the OA...
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05 Jun 2009, 20:04
The OA is C
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06 Jun 2009, 01:41
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skim wrote:
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?

Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?

there's really no difference between among and amongst. "among" is american english while "amongst" is british english. Since the GMAT exam is written in America, then "among" would be the preferred choice. However, you may sometimes find "amongst" on the GMAT to confuse you. The GMAT doesn't test your spelling skills, so it would "amongst" as a correct answer. So don't be too worried about it. both are perfectly fine with "among" being the most popular choice.
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20 Apr 2010, 05:36
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Some thoughts:

A series should be written as follows:

I have done X, Y, and Z.
The skeleton of the sentence is as follows:
have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers

Just look for and fatigue

C and E have the "and fatigue".

=> E means that fatigue has been lowered, but the in previous part of the sentence, there is a verb "reduced". So, the use of lower is redundant.

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14 Mar 2011, 11:55
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
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14 Mar 2011, 16:10
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Grouping is wrong. "reduced" is attached to sickness, fatigue but "raised" is attached to production efficiency. You have to use a contrast keyword. "and" is not contrast.

deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
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14 Mar 2011, 20:32
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Just one step forward- The third factor of the reduced series namely 'fatigue' should be separated by a comma to indicate that the series is going to end. Only C and E are eligible contenders. Between them, E is a jumble of unparallel and ungrammatical active and passive voice mix. C survives
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14 Mar 2011, 20:51
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deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"

Step 1) Recognize the sentence structure. Right now the sentence is structured like this:

"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and have raised Q."

You cannot have this structure! With a "laundry list" like this, you have to end the third item with "and..."
It has to be:
"studies have reduced X, Y, and Z while raising Q."

I was spent a few seconds onsidering another alternate structure like this:
"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and Q"---but that's not what the sentence is trying to say. The sentence is trying to stay that it RAISED Q---instead of REDUCED Q. So after a few seconds, I went back to what I was thinking of before.

Step 2) So we conclude we want to REDUCE 3 items, and RAISE the last one.

so think:

"studies have reduced item1, item2, and item3 while raising item4."

The word "and" must be there--only choices (C) and (E) have this. Of the two, (C) is much simpler and still accurate. The "was lowered" in (E) shouldn't be there.

Step 3) So we go with (C) and read it again to make sure it makes sense.
"studies have reduced [ (sickness), (sleeping on the job), (and fatigue among shift workers) ] while raising (production efficiency)."
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14 Mar 2011, 23:45
So can u have "have reduced x,y and z and have raised q" . I got the "and" part but just wanted to check the "raising" with the "have reduced" part
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23 May 2011, 01:11
I chose option (D) because I had a tussle between option (C) and option (D). I thought option (C) is using "raising" which is in present continuous tense. I thought that option (D) might do more justice.

In the end, I failed to realize that "and raised" is opposite to "reduced" and it ("and reduced") will not come in the list of element which will follow "reduced".
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18 Jun 2011, 16:03
+1 C

We need "and" next to fatigue because it is the end of the list for "reduced".
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2012, 15:58
Answer E is wrong because then the first two parallel elements don't have a "and" between them. If the "and" were added, I think grammatically it should work, but it is not concise nor very readable.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, and sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising raised production efficiency in various industries

in this case the "and fatigue among shift workers" is just another independent clause connected by coordinating conjunction and, instead of trying to be a parallel element.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2012, 16:09
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2012, 08:31
What is wrong with the option B here?
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2012, 20:02
I have picked C for this question:

This question requires parallelism for 3 elements:

The human sleep cycle have reduced:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

While raising is a contrast to the initial 3 elements in parallel - this element should not be parallel to the rest.

A. "Have raised" breaks the parallelism requirement because the words "have reduced" carry over to all the elements.

B. Although parallelism isn't broken, the meaning is incorrect. "raised" does not make sense with "have reduced."

C. This maintains parallelism and clearly shows the contrast that exists between the 3 elements and the increase in production efficiency.

D. "Lowered..." breaks parallelism because it is a verb phrase instead of a noun phrase. "And raised" should not be parallel in meaning to the other 3 elements.

E. "fatigue among shift works was lowered" is a clause and this is not parallel to the other 2 noun phrases. Therefore, this is incorrect.
Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2012, 20:02

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