Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases https://gmatclub.com/AppTrack
GMAT Club

 It is currently 29 Mar 2017, 18:09

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Recently implemented

 new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics
Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 81
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 280 [2] , given: 0

Recently implemented [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Jun 2009, 20:29
2
This post received
KUDOS
40
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

57% (02:06) correct 43% (01:05) wrong based on 2249 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
you can ask an expert
New!
Intern
Joined: 16 Apr 2010
Posts: 47
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 73 [6] , given: 0

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Apr 2010, 05:36
6
This post received
KUDOS
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Some thoughts:

A series should be written as follows:

I have done X, Y, and Z.
The skeleton of the sentence is as follows:
have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers

Just look for and fatigue

C and E have the "and fatigue".

=> E means that fatigue has been lowered, but the in previous part of the sentence, there is a verb "reduced". So, the use of lower is redundant.

Answer is C.
_________________

Never, never, never GIVE UP.

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2040
Followers: 2150

Kudos [?]: 7475 [5] , given: 286

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Feb 2013, 16:10
5
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!

Hi there,

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

There is no problem in the parallelism of the entities in the list because all the three entities are noun entities are grammatically parallel.

Yes, “sleeping on the job” is a gerund – a noun that denotes an action. However, “sickness” and “fatigue” are not Concrete Nouns. They are “Abstract Nouns”.

By definition, Concrete Nouns are those nouns that are perceivable through five senses whereas the Abstract Nouns are those nouns that can only be experienced or felt.

There is no problem in a gerund being parallel to other abstract noun phrases. Frankly speaking, we need not even get to these grammatical complications of these entities.

Remember, this is an official question. These entities, at least “sickness” and “sleeping on the job”, are in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, rather than asking whether usage is correct or not, we must learn such usages from these sentences as they ARE correct.

Also, “raising production…” is not a verb. Note that the verb-ing word by itself cannot be a continuous/progressive verb. It must be preceded by such helping verb as is/am/are/was/were etc. to function as a verb. For example:

1. I am writing a letter.
2. He was playing soccer.
3. They are going to school.

Hence, in the correct answer choice, there is just one verb – “have reduced”.

e-gmat concept Parallelism – Helpful Tips lists out the entities that can be parallel and that cannot be parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Last edited by egmat on 06 Aug 2013, 08:55, edited 1 time in total.
Intern
Joined: 12 Jan 2013
Posts: 36
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 9 [3] , given: 12

Re: Recently implemented [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Feb 2013, 15:03
3
This post received
KUDOS
C is the right answer.

construction is of the form: have reduced A, B, and C while raising

E is wrong because the word lowered is redundant.

Last edited by StrivingTurtle on 14 Feb 2013, 16:17, edited 1 time in total.
GMAT Pill Representative
Joined: 14 Apr 2009
Posts: 2054
Location: New York, NY
Followers: 391

Kudos [?]: 1385 [2] , given: 8

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Mar 2011, 20:51
2
This post received
KUDOS
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"

Step 1) Recognize the sentence structure. Right now the sentence is structured like this:

"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and have raised Q."

You cannot have this structure! With a "laundry list" like this, you have to end the third item with "and..."
It has to be:
"studies have reduced X, Y, and Z while raising Q."

I was spent a few seconds onsidering another alternate structure like this:
"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and Q"---but that's not what the sentence is trying to say. The sentence is trying to stay that it RAISED Q---instead of REDUCED Q. So after a few seconds, I went back to what I was thinking of before.

Step 2) So we conclude we want to REDUCE 3 items, and RAISE the last one.

so think:

"studies have reduced item1, item2, and item3 while raising item4."

The word "and" must be there--only choices (C) and (E) have this. Of the two, (C) is much simpler and still accurate. The "was lowered" in (E) shouldn't be there.

Step 3) So we go with (C) and read it again to make sure it makes sense.
"studies have reduced [ (sickness), (sleeping on the job), (and fatigue among shift workers) ] while raising (production efficiency)."
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2040
Followers: 2150

Kudos [?]: 7475 [2] , given: 286

Re: Recently implemented [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Apr 2014, 07:15
2
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
starry9 wrote:
Hi,

I am unclear about the sentence structure in this question.

Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

Meaning:
Shift-work equations have been recently implemented. They are based on studies on the human sleep cycle.
According to the question stem they have reduced 3 things:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

And these equations have raised production efficiency

Error Analysis:
1. SV pair is correct: equations-have
2. Verb is in correct tense.
3. Modifiers are properly placed
4. Parallelism : 3 entities which have been reduced have been joined with a "," & "and" coming together- thus the list has some error.

POE:
We need and to correctly connect the list without a comma before it. C and E take care of this. E has redundancy issue hence is rejected.

Thus correct choice is C.

My question is about the "while raising" part. I understand it cannot be parallel with previous list because it brings in a contrast. But what is the structure of "raising" here...? Is raising a verb-ing modifier which modifies the effect of the previous action of reducing 3 items? It can't be a verb of the subject equations because if we look at it like this that equations have done 2 things: reduced and raised? "raising" does not go with that. Thus I got confused in this step and while marking the answer was debating between A and C. What am I not understanding?

Thanks!

Hi starry9,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Choice A is certainly incorrect because the list of three things that the "shift-work equations" have reduced are not connected properly by a marker or proper conjunction.

Now let's talk about Choice C. In this choice, while is NOT presenting contrast. If you analyze all the effects of the "shift-work equations", they are all positive effects. Yes, a few things have reduced, and something has increased. However, all these effects are positive. Hence, we do not have a contrast. Actually, "while" here presents simultaneity of action. Two things happened together by implementing "shift-work equations". For example:

I tripped while walking.
My sister finished cooking while talking to me on the phone.

Now let's talk about the role of "raising". This word here is a verb-ing noun, commonly known as gerund.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Intern
Joined: 09 Oct 2012
Posts: 39
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [1] , given: 14

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Feb 2013, 10:44
1
This post received
KUDOS
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!
Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 30 Apr 2012
Posts: 803
Followers: 359

Kudos [?]: 726 [1] , given: 5

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Sep 2013, 21:25
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
TGC wrote:
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action noun. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?!

I Presume both of the above queries have not been answered appropriately. In that, posts have advised to take
non-underlined portion as correct without any justifications.

Can any expert from MGMAT come and clear the air.

Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Action Nouns.
Complex Gerunds can be parallel to Action Nouns.
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Complex Gerunds.

Advise

Rgds,
TGC!

Yes, the following are accurate parallelism rules:
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Action Nouns.
Complex Gerunds can be parallel to Action Nouns.
Simple Gerunds cannot be parallel to Complex Gerunds.

In this example, none of these three have been violated. The three parallel items in the list are sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue. "Sleeping on the job" is definitely a simple gerund phrase which cannot parallel to action nouns, but "sickness" and "fatigue" are not action nouns, so we are safe.

It is true that you should avoid making action and concrete nouns parallel. In this sentence, "sleeping on the job" has an action element to it, but the other nouns are not concrete nouns. Concrete nouns refer to things, people, places and time periods/events. "Sickness" and "fatigue" are are abstract nouns - a type of noun that refers to something with which a person cannot physically interact, i.e. concepts, ideas, experiences, states of being, feelings, etc.). There is no restriction of making simple gerunds parallel with abstract nouns.

KW
_________________

Kyle Widdison | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | Utah

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2040
Followers: 2150

Kudos [?]: 7475 [1] , given: 286

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Apr 2014, 14:32
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
purnima wrote:
My doubt is ,:

1. While is a dependent clause marker , so where si the caluse after it ?

thought I could arrive at the anwer choic c by implementing the rules of parallelism.

Hi Purnima,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Yes, "while" works as a dependent clause marker ONLY WHEN it is followed by a Subject-Verb pair. When it is not, then it does works as a dependent clause marker because it is not followed by any clause.

Words such as "while, because, after, before, although" etc MAY or MAY NOT be followed by an SV pair. Depending on the structure of the sentence, we need to decide whether these words are acting as a dependent marker in the sentence or not.

In this official sentence, "while" is not working as a dependent marker because it is not followed by an SV pair.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Director
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 636
Location: Bangalore, India
Followers: 34

Kudos [?]: 225 [1] , given: 9

Re: Recently implemented [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 May 2016, 09:42
1
This post received
KUDOS
iliavko wrote:
yes, yes I understand it makes no sense, but for example purposes, imagine that it does make sense for some reason, then the list would be correct? Is there a limit to the number of elements you can list? No, right?..

Correct.

Quote:
Let's make the example sentence more logical:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and labor accidents in various industries. -> would this be correct?

Yes.

Quote:
Here I don't like the (comma)-And formation, wouldn't it require an Independent clause? I'm a bit confused with this...

It's just a list (more than 2 elements), and hence, there is a comma. Another officially correct sentence:

Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surfaces to detailed scrutiny from space.

Notice the comma before and land surfaces.

Having said that, the presence or absence of comma before and should not be a reason for you to select/ignore an option.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish (GMAT Faculty @ EducationAisle)
http://www.EducationAisle.com

Sentence Correction Nirvana available at Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

Verbal Expert
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2952
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
Followers: 440

Kudos [?]: 1965 [1] , given: 22

Re: Recently implemented [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Aug 2016, 07:26
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Mariwa wrote:
One question. Raising is not parallel with have reduced. I think the correct answer would have been: and fatigue among shift workers while they have raised...

Am I right???

Consider "while" not as a parallelism marker, but as a contrast marker.

Consider the sentence this way:

Independent clause, present participle modifier (modifying the entire clause preceding it):
Equations have reduced fatigue, (while) raising the efficiency.

Since the modification is to show a contrast, "while" is added before the present participle.

Since this is an official question, it can be inferred that GMAC accepts such use of "while", though I do agree that the sentence you have mentioned is better.
Intern
Joined: 18 Sep 2016
Posts: 4
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [1] , given: 2

Re: Recently implemented [#permalink]

### Show Tags

13 Oct 2016, 01:56
1
This post received
KUDOS
Why is “A” incorrect? Isn’t the parallelism correct in that option - “Have reduced” and “have raised”
Whereas in option “c” it says - “have reduced” and “while raising”

Good question! So it turns out this question is actually NOT testing you on parallelism–but rather on “laundry lists.” Don’t fall for the booby trap!

Step 1) Recognize the sentence structure. Right now the sentence is structured like this:

“studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and have raised Q.”

You cannot have this structure! With a “laundry list” like this, you have to end the third item with “and…”
It has to be:
“studies have reduced X, Y, and Z while raising Q.”

I was spent a few seconds onsidering another alternate structure like this:
“studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and Q”—but that’s not what the sentence is trying to say. The sentence is trying to stay that it RAISED Q—instead of REDUCED Q. So after a few seconds, I went back to what I was thinking of before.

Step 2) So we conclude we want to REDUCE 3 items, and RAISE the last one.

so think:

“studies have reduced item1, item2, and item3 while raising item4.”

The word “and” must be there–only choices (C) and (E) have this. Of the two, (C) is much simpler and still accurate. The “was lowered” in (E) shouldn’t be there.

Step 3) So we go with (C) and read it again to make sure it makes sense.
“studies have reduced [ (sickness), (sleeping on the job), (and fatigue among shift workers) ] while raising (production efficiency).”
Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Jan 2008
Posts: 291
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 39 [0], given: 3

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2009, 08:33
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?
Senior Manager
Joined: 11 Dec 2008
Posts: 482
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.9
Followers: 40

Kudos [?]: 202 [0], given: 12

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2009, 09:04
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.

I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno
SVP
Joined: 21 Jul 2006
Posts: 1535
Followers: 12

Kudos [?]: 771 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2009, 09:18
bipolarbear wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.

I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno

it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."
Manager
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 81
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 280 [0], given: 0

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2009, 19:50
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?

Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?
Senior Manager
Joined: 11 Dec 2008
Posts: 482
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.9
Followers: 40

Kudos [?]: 202 [0], given: 12

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2009, 19:54
Quote:

it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."

Yeah... however (D) is the answer so therefore it must be correct. Reread my post again and you'll see that's not what I was arguing. I also find lowered fatigue to be sort of strange, but that's the OA...
Manager
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 81
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 280 [0], given: 0

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2009, 20:04
The OA is C
SVP
Joined: 21 Jul 2006
Posts: 1535
Followers: 12

Kudos [?]: 771 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Jun 2009, 01:41
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
skim wrote:
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..

clear ?

Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?

there's really no difference between among and amongst. "among" is american english while "amongst" is british english. Since the GMAT exam is written in America, then "among" would be the preferred choice. However, you may sometimes find "amongst" on the GMAT to confuse you. The GMAT doesn't test your spelling skills, so it would "amongst" as a correct answer. So don't be too worried about it. both are perfectly fine with "among" being the most popular choice.
Intern
Joined: 16 Nov 2010
Posts: 27
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Mar 2011, 11:55
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
Re: "Shift-work equations"   [#permalink] 14 Mar 2011, 11:55

Go to page    1   2   3    Next  [ 50 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
11 Recently implemented virtual lectures conducted remotely at 10 11 May 2013, 22:28
2 Red-light cameras, originally implemented in an attempt at 4 22 Jan 2013, 04:46
11 Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based 13 11 Oct 2012, 09:15
11 Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based 10 25 Sep 2012, 11:04
9 A Food and Drug Administration rule implemented in December 7 15 Dec 2011, 00:07
Display posts from previous: Sort by

# Recently implemented

 new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.