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# Recently implemented

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Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 851

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03 Dec 2004, 15:59
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Question Stats:

63% (02:02) correct 37% (01:05) wrong based on 286 sessions

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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Highlight below to OA
The best answer, C, grammatically states that the equations... have reduced x, y, and i. and have raised
efficiency. Choices A and B fail to use and to signal that fatigue among shift workers completes the series
begun by have reduced, and so produce awkward and unclear sentences. Both D and E fail to use and to
introduce the last item in the list, which is sleeping in these constructions. In E, while raising has no logical
referent, producing only the absurd statement that fatigue has raised efficiency.

----------------------------------------------
Which one (B) or (C)? Explain? Thanks.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 24 Jun 2016, 00:24, edited 1 time in total.
Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
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05 Dec 2004, 07:20
OA is (C). Can someone explain?
Intern
Joined: 24 Sep 2003
Posts: 38
Location: India

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05 Dec 2004, 07:26

As per rule of parellelism, it should not be Raised(verb).. Because we are using "sickness" "sleeping on the job" "fatigue among shift workers", So next should also be infinitive raising production efficiency in various industries".
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Vipin Gupta

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Joined: 05 Jul 2008
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06 Nov 2008, 19:51
Can anyone explain why D is wrong?

D is wrong because lowered is redundant.

On the flip side, I thought the answer should be B as C seems NOT to be parallel

reduced X Y and Z, raised A

Looks like this is 10th edition. I did not understand the OE.
Director
Joined: 14 Aug 2007
Posts: 728

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06 Nov 2008, 19:52
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Good question!!
A, B ,D are wrong for using a "," before 'and'.

shift-work equations 'reduced' three things which should be separated by comma.
sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers.
But as "fatigue among shift workers" is the last in the list (of what is 'reduced' by equations) it should have an ",and" before it.

E is wrong because it violated the parallelism : sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers should be all nouns.

C is the best by POE
Manager
Joined: 23 Jul 2008
Posts: 194

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06 Nov 2008, 20:54
I second Alpha's reasoning

the pattern of the sentence is

F have reduced G,H and I, while raising J.

Only C fits that pattern. E is not parallel.
Retired Moderator
Joined: 18 Jul 2008
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07 Nov 2008, 07:20
But as "fatigue among shift workers" is the last in the list (of what is 'reduced' by equations) it should have an ",and" before it.

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

It does not have ",and"....

Can you explain this rule in more detail? Thanks.

alpha_plus_gamma wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Good question!!
A, B ,D are wrong for using a "," before 'and'.

shift-work equations 'reduced' three things which should be separated by comma.
sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers.
But as "fatigue among shift workers" is the last in the list (of what is 'reduced' by equations) it should have an ",and" before it.

E is wrong because it violated the parallelism : sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers should be all nouns.

C is the best by POE
Director
Joined: 14 Aug 2007
Posts: 728

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07 Nov 2008, 08:20
It does not have ",and"....

Can you explain this rule in more detail? Thanks.

when you have to list up similar items you should separate them by a comma.
and before the last item in the list you should put ",and" to mark the end of the list.
Retired Moderator
Joined: 18 Jul 2008
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07 Nov 2008, 08:38
But there is no ",and" in answer choice C.

alpha_plus_gamma wrote:
It does not have ",and"....

Can you explain this rule in more detail? Thanks.

when you have to list up similar items you should separate them by a comma.
and before the last item in the list you should put ",and" to mark the end of the list.
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08 Apr 2015, 19:40
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Intern
Joined: 30 Jul 2015
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Location: Mexico
GMAT 1: 730 Q49 V41
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19 Sep 2015, 09:13
Doesn't the comma before the "and" suggest the last item is an Indempendent Clause?

I thought the "and" in the end of a list could not have a comma before it, otherwise it would suggest a new clause would start from there.
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25 Sep 2015, 21:32
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.
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31 Mar 2016, 03:36
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.

But why not D? I thought D put the sentence in parallel construction.
Verbal Expert
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03 Apr 2016, 08:10
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maiara wrote:
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.

But why not D? I thought D put the sentence in parallel construction.

As per option D, the "equations" have done 3 things (depicted by 3 verbs):
1. reduced 2 things (sickness and sleeping on job).
2. lowered fatigue.
3. raised production.

In such construction, please note that the 1st part should be ......reduced sickness AND sleeping on the job. The conjunction "and" is missing between sickness and sleeping in option D. Therefore option D is wrong.

Now for the correct option C:
Shift-work equations have reduced 3 things: 1. sickness, 2.sleeping on job, and 3. fatigue.
However, the equations have increased 1 thing: production
The contrast between increase and decrease is better depicted by the contrast marker "while" rather than "and".

Nonetheless, using "and" could be grammatically correct, if that constructional error mentioned above were not there in option D.
Jamboree GMAT Instructor
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10 Apr 2016, 22:51
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Expert's post
maiara wrote:
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.

But why not D? I thought D put the sentence in parallel construction.

Hi,

In addition to having "and" between sickness and sleeping, there is case of redundancy in option D.

Have reduced
1. sickness
2. sleeping
3.lowered fatigue

reduced & lowered = redundant.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Recently implemented   [#permalink] 10 Apr 2016, 22:51
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