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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu

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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising


The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 233
Page: 690


Spoiler: :: OE
The best answer, C, grammatically states that the equations... have reduced x, y, and i. and have raised efficiency. Choices A and B fail to use and to signal that fatigue among shift workers completes the series begun by have reduced, and so produce awkward and unclear sentences. Both D and E fail to use and to introduce the last item in the list, which is sleeping in these constructions. In E, while raising has no logical referent, producing only the absurd statement that fatigue has raised efficiency.


This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Originally posted by skim on 04 Jun 2009, 20:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Jan 2019, 04:03, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Aug 2013, 08:55
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IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.


I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?! :?:


Hi there,

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

There is no problem in the parallelism of the entities in the list because all the three entities are noun entities are grammatically parallel.

Yes, “sleeping on the job” is a gerund – a noun that denotes an action. However, “sickness” and “fatigue” are not Concrete Nouns. They are “Abstract Nouns”.

By definition, Concrete Nouns are those nouns that are perceivable through five senses whereas the Abstract Nouns are those nouns that can only be experienced or felt.

There is no problem in a gerund being parallel to other abstract noun phrases. Frankly speaking, we need not even get to these grammatical complications of these entities.

Remember, this is an official question. These entities, at least “sickness” and “sleeping on the job”, are in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, rather than asking whether usage is correct or not, we must learn such usages from these sentences as they ARE correct.

Also, “raising production…” is not a verb. Note that the verb-ing word by itself cannot be a continuous/progressive verb. It must be preceded by such helping verb as is/am/are/was/were etc. to function as a verb. For example:

1. I am writing a letter.
2. He was playing soccer.
3. They are going to school.

Hence, in the correct answer choice, there is just one verb – “have reduced”.

e-gmat concept Parallelism – Helpful Tips lists out the entities that can be parallel and that cannot be parallel.

Hope this helps. :)
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Originally posted by egmat on 14 Feb 2013, 16:10.
Last edited by egmat on 06 Aug 2013, 08:55, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 20 Apr 2010, 05:36
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Some thoughts:

A series should be written as follows:

I have done X, Y, and Z.
The skeleton of the sentence is as follows:
have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers

Just look for and fatigue

C and E have the "and fatigue".

=> E means that fatigue has been lowered, but the in previous part of the sentence, there is a verb "reduced". So, the use of lower is redundant.

Answer is C.
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New post 14 Mar 2011, 20:51
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deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"


Step 1) Recognize the sentence structure. Right now the sentence is structured like this:

"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and have raised Q."

You cannot have this structure! With a "laundry list" like this, you have to end the third item with "and..."
It has to be:
"studies have reduced X, Y, and Z while raising Q."

I was spent a few seconds onsidering another alternate structure like this:
"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and Q"---but that's not what the sentence is trying to say. The sentence is trying to stay that it RAISED Q---instead of REDUCED Q. So after a few seconds, I went back to what I was thinking of before.

Step 2) So we conclude we want to REDUCE 3 items, and RAISE the last one.

so think:

"studies have reduced item1, item2, and item3 while raising item4."

The word "and" must be there--only choices (C) and (E) have this. Of the two, (C) is much simpler and still accurate. The "was lowered" in (E) shouldn't be there.

Step 3) So we go with (C) and read it again to make sure it makes sense.
"studies have reduced [ (sickness), (sleeping on the job), (and fatigue among shift workers) ] while raising (production efficiency)."
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2012, 18:22
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First figure out which ones are parallel. recently implemented XYZ has reduced three things
First list which has 3 items
a) sickness
b) sleeping
c) fatigue.

and increased one thing a) productivity.- Second list with only one item

Three items in the first list have to be parallel, which means there should be "and" prior to fatigue because that is the last item in the first list.
Now let's see the answer choices
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
this choice is incorrect because it assumes productivity as part of the first list.


(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
This choice is incorrect because it assumes raised productivity as part of the first list.

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
This choice is correct as it correctly adds "and" prior to fatigue adn that closes the first list. while raising correctly describes the second part/effect
of the xyz implementation

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
This choice is incorrect because of 2 things a) lowered is redundant as we already have reduced. b) there is no "and" in front of fatigue

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising
This choice is incorrect because lowered is redundant.

Hope that helps
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2012, 11:27
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Concept tested: Parallelism, “items in a list”
Difficulty level: Hard
Illustration: When we provide a list of items using commas we must maintain the
following structure.
A, B, C and D.
This is a proper parallel structure concerning items in a list, and this structure
needs to be maintained in a clause. Another thing of importance in this sentence
is the contrast that is presented.
This sentence says that “shift work equations” has reduced some stuffs but raised some other stuff. So using “and” to connect this two
relationship affects the meaning of the sentence.
In A, parallel structure is brokenusing the sudden “have”, “and item in the list” construction is not maintained.
According to “item in the list” the construction could be “A has reduced X, Y and Z,but has raised P, Q and R.
So we definitely need “and” before “fatigue among shift
workers”
This concept eliminates A and B.
D uses redundant construction “reduced” + “lowered”, which could also act as a fatal double negative.
E breaks voice parallelism.
We can’t suddenly introduce a passive voice in a list construction where other items are in active voice.
C is the correct answer which maintains “item in thelist” and introduces the contrast using “while”.
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New post 30 Sep 2012, 13:20
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Ivan91 wrote:
How to ***** is A no parallel ? Seriously, answers like this are killing me.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job,fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

Perfectly parallel


Ok, let me try and break this down for you.

THE TRICK HERE : whenever you see a comma(,) before 'and' then it is a list in the form of x,y, and z and you have to make parallel all three x and y and z.

Thus we have to parallel have reduced [sickness] [sleeping], and [fatigue] - parallel nouns while raising the efficiency.

Therefore C must be the correct answer.

I really hope this helps you :)
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New post Updated on: 14 Feb 2013, 16:17
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C is the right answer.

construction is of the form: have reduced A, B, and C while raising

E is wrong because the word lowered is redundant.

Originally posted by StrivingTurtle on 14 Feb 2013, 15:03.
Last edited by StrivingTurtle on 14 Feb 2013, 16:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2014, 07:15
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starry9 wrote:
Hi,

I am unclear about the sentence structure in this question.

Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

Meaning:
Shift-work equations have been recently implemented. They are based on studies on the human sleep cycle.
According to the question stem they have reduced 3 things:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

And these equations have raised production efficiency

Error Analysis:
1. SV pair is correct: equations-have
2. Verb is in correct tense.
3. Modifiers are properly placed
4. Parallelism : 3 entities which have been reduced have been joined with a "," & "and" coming together- thus the list has some error.

POE:
We need and to correctly connect the list without a comma before it. C and E take care of this. E has redundancy issue hence is rejected.

Thus correct choice is C.

My question is about the "while raising" part. I understand it cannot be parallel with previous list because it brings in a contrast. But what is the structure of "raising" here...? Is raising a verb-ing modifier which modifies the effect of the previous action of reducing 3 items? It can't be a verb of the subject equations because if we look at it like this that equations have done 2 things: reduced and raised? "raising" does not go with that. Thus I got confused in this step and while marking the answer was debating between A and C. What am I not understanding?

Thanks!


Hi starry9,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

Choice A is certainly incorrect because the list of three things that the "shift-work equations" have reduced are not connected properly by a marker or proper conjunction.

Now let's talk about Choice C. In this choice, while is NOT presenting contrast. If you analyze all the effects of the "shift-work equations", they are all positive effects. Yes, a few things have reduced, and something has increased. However, all these effects are positive. Hence, we do not have a contrast. Actually, "while" here presents simultaneity of action. Two things happened together by implementing "shift-work equations". For example:

I tripped while walking.
My sister finished cooking while talking to me on the phone.

Now let's talk about the role of "raising". This word here is a verb-ing noun, commonly known as gerund.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2011, 16:10
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Grouping is wrong. "reduced" is attached to sickness, fatigue but "raised" is attached to production efficiency. You have to use a contrast keyword. "and" is not contrast.

deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2011, 20:32
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Just one step forward- The third factor of the reduced series namely 'fatigue' should be separated by a comma to indicate that the series is going to end. Only C and E are eligible contenders. Between them, E is a jumble of unparallel and ungrammatical active and passive voice mix. C survives
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2013, 10:44
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pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.


I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?! :?:
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New post 08 Apr 2014, 14:32
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purnima wrote:
My doubt is ,:

1. While is a dependent clause marker , so where si the caluse after it ?

thought I could arrive at the anwer choic c by implementing the rules of parallelism.



Hi Purnima,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

Yes, "while" works as a dependent clause marker ONLY WHEN it is followed by a Subject-Verb pair. When it is not, then it does works as a dependent clause marker because it is not followed by any clause.

Words such as "while, because, after, before, although" etc MAY or MAY NOT be followed by an SV pair. Depending on the structure of the sentence, we need to decide whether these words are acting as a dependent marker in the sentence or not.

In this official sentence, "while" is not working as a dependent marker because it is not followed by an SV pair.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2015, 21:32
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The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.
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New post 03 Apr 2016, 08:10
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maiara wrote:
AryamaDuttaSaikia wrote:
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.


But why not D? I thought D put the sentence in parallel construction.
Thank you in advance!


As per option D, the "equations" have done 3 things (depicted by 3 verbs):
1. reduced 2 things (sickness and sleeping on job).
2. lowered fatigue.
3. raised production.

In such construction, please note that the 1st part should be ......reduced sickness AND sleeping on the job. The conjunction "and" is missing between sickness and sleeping in option D. Therefore option D is wrong.

Now for the correct option C:
Shift-work equations have reduced 3 things: 1. sickness, 2.sleeping on job, and 3. fatigue.
However, the equations have increased 1 thing: production
The contrast between increase and decrease is better depicted by the contrast marker "while" rather than "and".

Nonetheless, using "and" could be grammatically correct, if that constructional error mentioned above were not there in option D.
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New post 09 May 2016, 09:42
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iliavko wrote:
yes, yes I understand it makes no sense, but for example purposes, imagine that it does make sense for some reason, then the list would be correct? Is there a limit to the number of elements you can list? No, right?..

Correct.

Quote:
Let's make the example sentence more logical:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and labor accidents in various industries. -> would this be correct?

Yes.

Quote:
Here I don't like the (comma)-And formation, wouldn't it require an Independent clause? I'm a bit confused with this...

It's just a list (more than 2 elements), and hence, there is a comma. Another officially correct sentence:

Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surfaces to detailed scrutiny from space.

Notice the comma before and land surfaces.

Having said that, the presence or absence of comma before and should not be a reason for you to select/ignore an option.
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New post 31 Aug 2016, 07:26
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Mariwa wrote:
One question. Raising is not parallel with have reduced. I think the correct answer would have been: and fatigue among shift workers while they have raised...

Am I right???


Consider "while" not as a parallelism marker, but as a contrast marker.

Consider the sentence this way:

Independent clause, present participle modifier (modifying the entire clause preceding it):
Equations have reduced fatigue, (while) raising the efficiency.

Since the modification is to show a contrast, "while" is added before the present participle.

Since this is an official question, it can be inferred that GMAC accepts such use of "while", though I do agree that the sentence you have mentioned is better.
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New post 09 Sep 2018, 13:29
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Prateek176 wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

I am finding it difficult to accept C as the answer choice. As per my understanding, "while" is a subordinator and required a bonafide verb which is clearly missing here in option C. Can anybody please help me understand?


"While" can be used in two ways.

It can be used to start a clause. In such cases "while" is similar to "whereas," and the clause so begun is a subordinate clause.

"While" can also be used to convey, simply, "at the same time", without the connotations of the word "whereas." When used in this way, "while" can be used to begin a clause, but what follows "while" that means "at the same time" does not have to be a clause.

Consider the following examples:

"While" Begins Clause: While the guests were enjoying the sunset, the band set up.

The above sentence conveys that the band set up as the guests were enjoying the sunset.

"While" Without Clause: While setting up, the band members discussed the song list.

This above sentence conveys that, as they were setting up, the band members discussed the song list.

"While Without Clause: My uncle Harry would sing opera while skiing in the Alps.

Notice, in this last sentence, there is no comma before "while". When "while" means "when", you don't need a comma before it. When "while" means "whereas" and begins a clause, the clause has to be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

Here's another example without a comma:

We ran around town while our parents were shopping for bicycles.

The fact that "while" is not preceded by a comma confirms that, in this case, it does not mean "whereas".
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New post 29 Sep 2018, 23:15
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Cbirole
When we state a list all thing have to be parallel and logical. Lets put option B in original sentence.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, have reducedsleeping on the job, have reducedfatigue among shift workers, and have reducedraised production efficiency in various industries.

See the highlighted part, in the list last part doesn't make logical sense( have reduced raised).
While when u do the same exercise on C it perfectly makes sense.

Hope it helps
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New post 14 Mar 2011, 11:55
1
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu   [#permalink] 14 Mar 2011, 11:55

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