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# Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are

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Director
Joined: 25 Oct 2008
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Location: Kolkata,India
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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 13:28
5
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Difficulty:

5% (low)

Question Stats:

82% (01:35) correct 18% (00:41) wrong based on 1119 sessions

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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 14:18
3
KUDOS
tejal777 wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Hi
this question tests your knowledge of parallelism

The correct idiom is "not X but Y". X and Y must be parallel

Note that A and B have a construction "not CAUSED ........ but Y'
If the writer wants to write that way, it should be "not CAUSED X, but CAUSED Y"

In this case, X and Y both have to have a "by" inside them.
The only alternative that has a structure "caused not by X, but by Y" is C

sounds good?

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 14:00
2
KUDOS
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
tejal777 wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

OA:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Is the OA C ?

Idiom, Parallel construction

Not by X, But by Y

caused not by (stress, alcohol, or rich foods), but by (a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.)
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2016, 09:45
2
KUDOS
iMyself wrote:
But, my question is: WHY not B. B makes parallelism to me!
B. NOT (tag)+CAUSED (verb)+by+something....................BUT (tag)+ARE (verb)+by+Something
Indicate parallelism to each other.

Hi iMyself, the short answer is that caused is not used as a verb here, but as a participle.

An easier way would be to do a XYZ Analysis (as per our book Sentence Correction Nirvana). With B, the structure would be:

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

So, the structure is: C Not X but Y, where C is the structure of the sentence outside the XY deconstruct.

C: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are
X: caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods
Y: are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach

Since C is outside the XY deconstruct, C must make sense with both X and Y.

i) Is C making sense with X?

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods. - Seems fine.

ii) Is C making sense with Y?

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach - Clearly not correct (are is repeated twice).

Since C is not making sense with Y, B is incorrect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the framework of XYZ deconstruct, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 15:26
1
KUDOS
yes C - parallelism "not by x but by Y"
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2011, 04:30
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

Parallelism : caused not by... but by - correct
OR Caused by not... but.. - correct.
anything else is wrong.
and vs. or. and implies a combination and alters the meaning from A. so C is correct
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2016, 00:04
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2016, 08:30
tejal777 wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

The question is totally Parallelism issue. Here the correct answer is C. But, my question is: WHY not B. B makes parallelism to me!
B. NOT (tag)+CAUSED (verb)+by+something....................BUT (tag)+ARE (verb)+by+Something
Indicate parallelism to each other.
Thanks...
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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2016, 00:35
Concept Tested : Parallelism - Not x but y
A. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but --> Required Not by X but by Y
B. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by --> "caused by" is not parallel to "are by" ==> Caused is not a verb
C. caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by --> Correct Parallelism
D. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but --> Required Not by X but by Y
E. caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by --> Required Not verb/by but verb/by
Intern
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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 05:30
http://gmatclub.com/forum/recently-physicians-have-determined-that-stomach-ulcers-are-31567.html

Thanks
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Once you know the answer, it is easy to justify.

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Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2017, 18:53
Hi,

I think the caused is a verb here because it is preceded by ARE CAUSED

EducationAisle wrote:
iMyself wrote:
But, my question is: WHY not B. B makes parallelism to me!
B. NOT (tag)+CAUSED (verb)+by+something....................BUT (tag)+ARE (verb)+by+Something
Indicate parallelism to each other
Hi iMyself, the short answer is that caused is not used as a verb here, but as a participle.
Re: Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are   [#permalink] 10 Feb 2017, 18:53
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