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Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Ameri

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Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Ameri  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2018, 02:41
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Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

55% (01:32) correct 45% (01:58) wrong based on 163 sessions

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Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Americas indicate the use of seagoing ships along the trade over the Atlantic Ocean, which were the main arteries of contact between the various empires. Although the first sailing boats were built in 8000 B.C., it is likely that the earliest trade exchanges between Europe and the Americas started only after the first boats that could cross the sea were built 1000 years later.

Which of the following, if true, casts doubts on the author’s conclusion above?


A. The authenticity of the records that indicate the use of seagoing ships was challenged, but the accusation was dismissed subsequently because of the lack of substantial evidence.

B. There is no record of any sea-based trade along the trade routes over the Atlantic Ocean between 10000 and 9000 B.C.

C. There is enough evidence to prove that European empires used lakes and rivers as channels to maintain trade relations with their neighboring countries around 8000 B.C.

D. During the last glacial event 12,000 years ago, parts of the Atlantic Ocean froze completely, allowing for land-based travel.

E. Sea-routes were among the most viable means of maintaining trade between various empires in the ancient world.

OE:
Pre-Thinking
Conclusion Clarification

The author concludes that it is likely that the earliest trade exchanges between E & A started only after the first boats that could cross the sea were built 1000 years after 8000 B.C. (i.e. 7000 B.C.) when the first sailing boats were built.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Let’s see how we can make the conclusion less believable. To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion.Thus the way to weaken the conclusion will be to break or weaken this linkage i.e. find a new piece of information that suggests that the trade exchanges between E & A could have started before the first boats that could cross the sea were built 1000 years after 8000 B.C..

Linkage#1 –

Weakener – What if it was not necessary to cross the sea for the purpose of a trade exchange between E & A? What if there was an alternate route that could have been used for the trade exchange before first boats that could cross the sea were built?
Instance 1: If the records show a land route between E & A that could have been used for the purpose of trade exchanges before the first seagoing boats were built, the argument is seriously weakened.
With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices
A
The authenticity of the records that indicate the use of seagoing ships was challenged, but the accusation was dismissed subsequently because of the lack of substantial evidence.

Incorrect – Irrelevant

This option only tells us that the records were challenged; however, accusations do not prove that the records were not authentic.

There is no record of any sea-based trade along the trade routes over the Atlantic Ocean between 10000 and 9000 B.C.

Incorrect – Opposite

This option strengthens the argument since it hurts the possibility of any trade along the along the trade routes over the Atlantic Ocean before the first sailing boats were built in 8000 B.C.

C
There is enough evidence to prove that European empires used lakes and rivers as channels to maintain trade relations with their neighboring countries around 8000 B.C.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The argument is about long distance travel over sea.

During the last glacial event 12,000 years ago, parts of the Atlantic Ocean froze completely, allowing for land-based travel.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of the weakener mentioned in the pre-thinking analysis. It suggests that there could have been an alternate way of maintaining trade relations before the seagoing ships were invented.

E
Sea-routes were among the most viable means of maintaining trade between various empires in the ancient world.

Incorrect – Irrelevant

The viability of these routes has nothing to do with whether the first trade exchanges between the civilizations in E and A occurred only after the sea-going boats were built.

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Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Ameri  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 07:06
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[u]Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Americas indicate the use of seagoing ships along the trade over the Atlantic Ocean, which were the main arteries of contact between the various empires. Although the first sailing boats were built in 8000 B.C., it is likely that the earliest trade exchanges between Europe and the Americas started only after the first boats that could cross the sea were built 1000 years later.

Which of the following, if true, casts doubts on the author’s conclusion above?



The question asks to weaken the conclusion drawn.

conclusion-it is likely that the earliest trade exchanges between Europe and the Americas started only after the first boats that could cross the sea were built 1000 years later.
The time limit referring here is 7000BC onwards


A. The authenticity of the records that indicate the use of seagoing ships was challenged, but the accusation was dismissed subsequently because of the lack of substantial evidence.
- though in the first part it weakens the conclusion in the second part it neutralizes the first part. Rejected

B. There is no record of any sea-based trade along the trade routes over the Atlantic Ocean between 10000 and 9000 B.C. the time frame in the argument does not match with the time frame of the option. rejected

C. There is enough evidence to prove that European empires used lakes and rivers as channels to maintain trade relations with their neighboring countries around 8000 B.C.- so what if Europeans had an internal trade. It does not say anything about the trade with America. Rejected

D. During the last glacial event 12,000 years ago, parts of the Atlantic Ocean froze completely, allowing for land-based travel.- this weakens the conclusion as in this case there will not be the need of ships
(though historically, glacial even doesn't last till 7000 BC. Hence the statement is factually incorrect. I have never seen a question in actual GMAT where it has given the incorrect facts. Hence I think that this question has not been made correctly.)

E. Sea-routes were among the most viable means of maintaining trade between various empires in the ancient world.- this doesn't weaken the conclusion
GMAT Club Bot
Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Ameri &nbs [#permalink] 14 Aug 2018, 07:06
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Records of trade between ancient civilizations in Europe and the Ameri

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