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# Research during the past several decades on the nature of

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Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2004, 16:35
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Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
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Re: SC. Research [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2011, 14:15
But, shouldn't A be written in this way?

(A) that produce IT and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2011, 21:41
A

B D and E out cuz of s-v agreement.

C is okay grammatically but is a passive structure. Therefore, A.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 17:26
definitely going for A on this one...all of the other ones seem to have passive language
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Re: several decades on the nature of language [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 18:05
dwivedys wrote:
Dear Noboru - lemme take a shot:

First problem with C: the phrase "by which it is produced" is considered WORDY on the GMAT.

Second - when we say - not underlying simplicity but great complexity - it almost amounts to saying - we were "expecting" simplicity but found complexity; this is the distortion. The statement - has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicty - puts the facts in a straightfoward "active voice".

In GMAT English - in most cases - the correct choice is worded simply (has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity) and in active voice. Compare again ---- Processes that produce is active voice versus processes by which it is produced...

I hope it is clear.

Thank dwivedys, I have question, if the parallel structure such as "not simplicity but complexity" replace in choice C, it's correct? (out of the passive voice problem).
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2011, 07:43
i think this one doesn't resembles GMAT qns
though A seems to be correct but it is flawed
A says that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

IT has a poor antecedent, it may refer to nature of language or Reserch as both are in same case.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 00:15
ArashKhurana wrote:
22. Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

a. that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
b. of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
c. by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
d. by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
e. by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

A or C? And why?

Thanks!
Arash

My ans:c

We cannot use "have" since we are discussing here language as a singular term.Hence D & E automatically ruled out.Now in A..it is processess "that produce" doesnt go well compared with "processess by which it isproduced" ( C)
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 11:20
'Instead' is used as an adverb and therefore has to modify some verb.

Instead of walking to school, they rode the bus.

In the question, we have two nouns (simplicity, complexity). Thus we want to use the construction not 'A' but 'B'.

Therefore that leaves us with (C).
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 12:06
Hi,

Received a PM to comment on the numnber of the subject of this particular problem.

Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

The subject of this sentence is "Research". Here we have a huge noun phrase "Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes" where everything after "Research" lies in prepositional phrase and hence cannot be the subject. So the head of this long phrase "Research" is the subject which is singular in number. Plural for "researches". Hence, the singular verb "has revealed" agrees in number with the singular subject in the original sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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12 May 2013, 22:32
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please read and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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13 May 2013, 00:10
I haven’t been able to go through all the eight pages of discussion on the topic. But judging from the last few posts, I could see that the discussion has been mostly on idiomatism, SV mismatch etc; But has it been dissected from the pronoun ambiguity angle as well? What would ‘it’ represent? Is it the research, as it is the subject according some, while it could as well stand for the language itself? Or can it replace the nature (in the nature of language)?
Of course, I can easily give arm-chair advice that, since all the five choices have the pronoun problem, we can ignore it altogether and focus on other areas. After all, isn’t a 1000-series problem, an anathema to GMAT? But what is the reality?
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2013, 18:52
I got this as D. Experts please explain
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2013, 13:05
A works for me

1) sub-verb agreement is spot on : Research during ............has revealed
2) nature of language and the process that produce and..... ( that is modifying process--- it is correct)
3) great complexity and instead of underlying simplicity ....( simple and concise) ..

As for C

by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
1) by which it is produced and understood (modifiers language BUT which violates the touch rule for modifying a noun)
2) also the statement implies that the process and not research has revealed the simplicity........
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 02:51
Hi Sankey,

Actually A and issue

Here it is in full with the areas highlighted:

Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

'produce' lacks a subject. We need to say something like 'produce it'.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 10:32
I say A.
Though C is correct grammatically, I think it is unnecessarily wordy and conveys the same information in a roundabout way.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2013, 10:35
singh_satya wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

I agree C is the right "ed" modifier and idiom righted mid course.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2013, 10:36
singh_satya wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

I agree C is the right "ed" modifier and idiom righted mid course.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2013, 05:58
I think by now there is no doubt that other choices except A&C are out.

We always heard that GMAC prefers active voice to the passive. BUT WHEN? Indeed if in a question that all the choices employed the passive voice we cannot use this preference, INSTEAD if we have 2 choices that are correct so far and the difference is in their voices then we must go with the active voice. That's the point in this question A employed active voice so we cross off C.

I hope, I clarified some misunderstanding.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2013, 07:36
Options B,D,E - straight out.
S-V agreement, Research is the subject here.
Tough choice between A and C, I think
not underlying simplicity but great complexity in Option C doesnt make sense. Hence A.
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2013, 11:35
plumber250 wrote:
Hi Sankey,

Actually A and issue

Here it is in full with the areas highlighted:

Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

'produce' lacks a subject. We need to say something like 'produce it'.

THANKS FOR THE EXPLANATION. BUT I STILL HAVE ONE DOUBT:

WHY THE OPTION C IS CORRECT. ISN'T THE ANTECEDENT OF "WHICH" IN OPTION C IS AMBIGUOUS HERE?? "WHICH" COULD REFER BACK TO "nature of language"OR " the processes" OR BOTH.

SECOND, CAN'T WE SAY "IT" AFTER "MAKE" IS ACTING AS A SUBJECT FOR BOTH "PRODUCE" AND "MAKE" .
HENCE WHY OPTION A IS NOT CORRECT
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2013, 16:13
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

it is 3-2 spilt.
Research is singular so has is correct
between A and C - C has pronoun error. "it" does not have clear noun. it could be language or process. logically it refers to language but grammatically it refers to process.

So A.
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of   [#permalink] 04 Aug 2013, 16:13

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