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# Research during the past several decades on the nature of

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VP
Joined: 25 Nov 2004
Posts: 1479
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2005, 15:52
I am bet A and C. prefer C because it is in past tense. but still doubt over the use of by which in C.

C. Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
Director
Joined: 03 Nov 2004
Posts: 848
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2005, 16:59
MA wrote:
has A proper tense? pls clearify guys.
swath20 wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

MA, The 'it' in 'C' is referring to 'processes' so the sentence is reading like 'processes by which processes is produced and understood...'
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Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 5030
Location: Singapore
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2005, 21:54
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
- present participal 'producing' and 'understanding' should not be used (sentence not emphasizing ongoin nature of action)

(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
- 'not underlying simpicity' is awkward

(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
- 'rather than' suggests the researches expected simplicity, something not suggested in the original sentence.

(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
- 'one' should not be used

A it is, by POE
Manager
Joined: 25 Oct 2004
Posts: 246
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2005, 04:13
OA is A
VP
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1427
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2005, 07:27
"A" by POE....but does "it" in "A" has clear referrant ? Can't "it" refer to either processes or nature of language ? Can anyone plz explain ...thx
Manager
Joined: 09 Jun 2005
Posts: 91
Location: New York
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2005, 15:35
Paki, why A? Shouldn't the rite usage in A be:

"that produce it and make it understandable..."

Without the "it" we don't wnow what these processes are producing...

Thanks!
Arash
VP
Joined: 22 Aug 2005
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2005, 16:53
as per my understanding, instead of is generally followed by gerund (+ing form).
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2005, 20:44
(A) for two reasons.

1. Good old active voice.
2. Instead of shows a complete contradiction as a result of the research.
VP
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2005, 09:32

The phrase rather than consists of an adverb and a conjunction and often means "and not," as in I decided to skip lunch rather than eat in the cafeteria again. It is grammatically similar to sooner than in that it is used with a "bare" infinitiveâ€”an infinitive minus to: I would stay here and eat flies sooner than go with them.

Rather than can also be used with nouns as a compound preposition meaning "instead of": I bought a mountain bike rather than a ten-speed. But some people object to this use, insisting that than should be used only as a conjunction. They therefore object to constructions in which rather than is followed by a gerund, as in Rather than buying a new car, I kept my old one.

In some cases, however, rather than can only be followed by a gerund and not by a bare infinitive. If the main verb of the sentence has a form that does not allow parallel treatment of the verb following rather than, you cannot use a bare infinitive, and you must use a gerund. This is often the case when the main verb is in a past tense or has a participle. Thus, you must say The results of the study, rather than ending (not end or ended) the controversy, only added to it. If the main verb was in the present tense (add), you could use the bare infinitive end.

Curiously, when the rather than construction follows the main verb, it can use other verb forms besides the bare infinitive. Thus you can say The results of the study added to the controversy rather than ended it.

The overriding concern in all of this should be to avoid faulty parallels, as in sentences like Rather than buy a new car, I have kept my old one and Rather than take a cab, she is going on foot.

Clearly, it is grammatically defensible to follow rather than with a gerund, but if you prefer to avoid the controversy, use instead of with gerunds.

usage of "instead of" to compare two parallel nouns is correct here in A.(see bold part)
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SVP
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2005, 09:48
I also got A.

C is little complex. "process by which" is not better than "process that"
VP
Joined: 07 Nov 2005
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Location: India
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2006, 19:32
A stands.
Eliminate B,D and E on SVA. "have" is wrong here.
C----> "not underlying simplicity" is awkward construction.
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Manager
Joined: 22 Aug 2006
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Location: Moscow, Russia
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2006, 08:47
I think it should C. I'm OK with the passve voice and it doesn't sound awkward to me (I'm not a native English speaker but i believe it's OK in a formal text).

My problem with A is that "produce" sounds awakward without "it" because the second phrase with one "it" supposedly for the 2 of them is not a simple verb but a "link + adjective" phrase.

it would be OK if it were "produce and decipher it", two simple verbs: or "produce it and make it understandable" - two "it"s

what's the OA?
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2006, 09:23
Mikhail Bondarenko wrote:
I think it should C. I'm OK with the passve voice and it doesn't sound awkward to me (I'm not a native English speaker but i believe it's OK in a formal text)

That's nice to know, but beware that the makers of the GMAT almost always (~90%) prefer active over passive voice constructions.
Intern
Joined: 14 Jul 2006
Posts: 48
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2006, 13:44
B,D and E are out - Research is Singular, Has should be used here not Have

Between A and C, A sounds better

In C, I feel the error is "has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity."

Here sense comes out to be "revealed "not underlying simplicity""
should have been "has not revealed underlying...."
Manager
Joined: 16 Aug 2006
Posts: 66
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2006, 14:50
My choice is A. Between C & A, A is an active mode and sounds better.

D,B,E have s-v error.
Manager
Joined: 24 Oct 2005
Posts: 169
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2006, 18:39
A....

Research..........has (Singulart Subject/Singular Verb)

Between A & C. A is more direct.
Research ....has revealed great complexity. Instead of Research has revealed not underlying simplicity
Director
Joined: 10 Oct 2005
Posts: 524
Location: US
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2006, 19:11
A make sense

1. uses has. so B, D and E are out.
2. active voice compared to C
Intern
Joined: 02 Oct 2006
Posts: 18
Location: India
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2006, 00:50
A??

there has to be "has" instead of "have" as it refers to "Research"
Current Student
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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2006, 07:55
In the ordinary world, both A and C are grammatically correct.

To appease those nerds at GMAC, we have to choose (A) for the active voice.
Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 851
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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13 May 2007, 08:03
First of all...it has to be Research...has
B/W A and C,A looks correct in pronoun reference.
In C,'it' can refer to nature or language.
Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of   [#permalink] 13 May 2007, 08:03

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