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# Research during the past several decades on the nature of

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12 Jul 2004, 16:35
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Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
New!
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06 Feb 2005, 06:09
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singh_satya wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

Satya

A-HA, I got it why not C. A and C are two kind of meaning.

Guys, reviewed A more carefully.

(A)..... process that produce(watch out! there is no objective) and make it(research) understandable.
There are two actions; one is produce, and the other is make it understandable. (we don't know produce what? )

However, in (C). Passive voice is ambiguous
(.... by which it is produced and understood ..... )

(is preposition by a common preposition or not ?)

we cannot make sure preposition by belongs which verb? ( be produced by? be understood by? or both)

I hope you understand what I'm talking about.
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13 Jul 2004, 02:11
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syamee_u wrote:
singh_satya wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

A or C.
Explain plz
Thanks
Satya

sorry ..

my choice :D 50 seconds

processes <by which it is produced and understood > + have should come. Not "HAS"

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

in this choice "it" is not correct in pronoun number as noun x and y. it should be them. however meaning also not correct

(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity

in this choice "it" is not correct in pronoun number

(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity

singular verb "has" not matching with plural subject processes

(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

awkward.

The subject here is RESEARCH (a singular). Therefore, we need verb HAS, which is in A and C. The other options are out.

Between A and C, I, however, opt for A.
"processes by which it is ... understood" does not seem to be as clear as "processes that produce and make it understandable "
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13 Jul 2004, 13:08
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Got it A,

In C, Research ...........has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity. I think it should be has not revealed .......
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21 Oct 2009, 11:47
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The subject of the sentence is "research," all of the other fluff in between can be ignored.

Since "research" is singular, the verb tense must also be singular. Answers B, D, and E all use the plural verb "have," so eliminate answers B, D, and E

Between answers A and C, "by which it..." is wordy and awkward construction.

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Re: Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 18:43
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singh_satya wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

B,D and E are out because the subject is Research(singular) so it requires a singular verb 'has'. Now A and C has a difference in meaning.

C :Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity.

Does the processes produce and understand the language. No.

Notice the subtle usage of understandable and understood in A and C.

The process make it understandable , not understand it themselves. A wins.
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05 Feb 2017, 13:33
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kannu44 wrote:
Dear Mod could you please explain why C is wrong Could not find convincing answer.
Thanks

Research has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity: Though technically not incorrect (maintains parallelism between two nouns, "simplicity" and " complexity"), this usage is awkward. The negation "not" should ideally go with the verb, not the noun "simplicity". The correct construction is:

Research has not revealed underlying simplicity but has revealed great complexity. (parallelism between verbs)
OR
Research has not revealed underlying simplicity but great complexity. (It is alright to omit the repeated parts - even verbs - from the second element of a parallel structure.)

Further notes:
Such noun (or adjective) parallelism is alright with the verb to be (because in negation, correct construction is: verb to be + "not"), but not with other verbs (because in negation, correct construction is: "does not" + other verb, not other verb + "not")-

He is intelligent.
He is not intelligent.... correct.
He is not intelligent, but foolish...... correct.

He thinks fast.
he thinks not fast--- incorrect.
He things not fast, but slow.... incorrect.
He does not think fast, but thinks slow... correct.
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12 Jul 2004, 19:40
C is best
in A: Processes that produce language seems illogical to me and changes the meaning of the sentence. It is as if the processes were producing language.
C is better in saying that processes are a means by which language is produced.
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13 Jul 2004, 01:42
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singh_satya wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

A or C.
Explain plz
Thanks
Satya

sorry ..

my choice :D 50 seconds

processes <by which it is produced and understood > + have should come. Not "HAS"

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

in this choice "it" is not correct in pronoun number as noun x and y. it should be them. however meaning also not correct

(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity

in this choice "it" is not correct in pronoun number

(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity

singular verb "has" not matching with plural subject processes

(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

awkward.

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13 Jul 2004, 02:46
I'll go for C
I don't like A because
1) instead of "processes that produce and make it understandable" it is better "processes that produce IT and make IT understandable"
2) even then I still doubt that processes can produce anything
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13 Jul 2004, 04:58
IMO (C) is best.

I didn't like the second part of (A) --> "great complexity instead of underlying simplicity".
The corresponding part in (C) is better. "has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity"
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13 Jul 2004, 12:38
OAis A
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13 Jul 2004, 12:48
A says "processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed"

I'm confused here.

Is it the "research" that has revealed great complexity OR
the "processes" that have revealed great complexity ?

I believe the "that" after processes is close to the action reveal and makes A sound faulty.
A should have "have" instead of "has".
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06 Feb 2005, 05:52
Bhai wrote:
Got it A,

In C, Research ...........has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity. I think it should be has not revealed .......

Hello, Bhai, I think you are a little misunderstood.

C is right in parallel.

according parallelism, it should be not A but B.

Any explanation? Thanks.
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06 Feb 2005, 08:37
I don't understand this either. I initially picked (A) but there is no grammatical explanation behind my picking (A).
Now why is (C) wrong though?
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01 Apr 2005, 09:26
Please conclude which is wrong or right?

I picked (C) over (A), but no specific grammatical reason. Please confirm what is the reason behind picking (A).

Thanks
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01 Apr 2005, 10:25
(C) is not good because it uses passive voice non necessarily. However (A) is wrong because it misses a "it" after "produce", as if it was saying the processes "produce it understandable" and "make it understandable".

Do we know the source of the question? OE?
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01 Apr 2005, 13:01
HongHu wrote:
(C) is not good because it uses passive voice non necessarily. However (A) is wrong because it misses a "it" after "produce", as if it was saying the processes "produce it understandable" and "make it understandable".

Do we know the source of the question? OE?

I think "A" is best here. Can't we say e.g. "Plz give me that tomato, we are going to cut and chop it in half".....I think the last and only "it" can stand for both cut it and chop it....right ?
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01 Apr 2005, 13:23
Exactly. If you say "cut and chop it in half" that means you "cut it in half and chop it in half". If you say "produce and make it understandable", it would mean "produce it understandable and make it understandable". However "produce it understandable" is obviously not right. What you should say is "produce it and make it understandable."
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01 Apr 2005, 15:15
HongHu wrote:
Exactly. If you say "cut and chop it in half" that means you "cut it in half and chop it in half". If you say "produce and make it understandable", it would mean "produce it understandable and make it understandable". However "produce it understandable" is obviously not right. What you should say is "produce it and make it understandable."

I agree with Hong A is unclear with its use of "it" and C changes the sentence using passive voice which makes the sentence inappropriate because it can be rephrased in active without losing the meaning
01 Apr 2005, 15:15

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