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Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu

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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2016, 07:02
Cause: Delta 32 mutation Effect: Prevention of plague
In cause and effect questions its assumed that effect does not lead to cause. Choice D points out that relation.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2016, 10:41
This argument's structure is on the line of "causation" - Delta 32 mutation -> caused -> survival of people during the Plague.

Option E is correct assumption as it negates possibility of "Reverse causation". If we negate this option, it means that reverse of the causal relation (mentioned in argument) is true, and thus breaks the argument.

One assumption for any argument that follows causation structure is to say that "Reverse causation" will not happen.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2016, 12:05
souvik101990 wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

A. Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

B. The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

C. Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

D. No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

E. The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.


Correct answer must be (E), try to negate the statement -

The Plague caused genetic mutations such as Delta-32 ----> This statement shatters the reasoning ...

Hence, (E) is correct , errors in other options marked in RED..
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 17:59
Once again, test takers should never let outside knowledge affects the ability to think critically.
E is no doubt the correct answer. Ones should never lose time because of over-thinking
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 08:12
Lets analyze each choice

Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

A. Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
Out of scope
B. The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
Again out of scope .
C. Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
Out of scope
D. No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria. It strengthens the argument but it is not an assumption.
E. The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32. Yep this our correct answer.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 12:24
## The most appropriate answer does seem to be E, but as stated in the stimulus, the direct descendants of only the survivors were tested, hence the plague bacteria wasn't there(as they were the survivor's descendants and assuming this bacteria is necessarily inherited in all cases) but were positive for mutation Delta 32, this statement kind of proves that plague did not cause mutation Delta-32 and hence is not an assumption.
This would have been the perfect answer as an assumption if the conclusion was " Delta 32 causes the Plague" (Reversal of Causal relationship)

I'm not very convinced of the answer. :?
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2017, 06:01
The answer is E. It’s a simple cause and effect question.

Premises : Because of D-32, people survived from black plague.
Researcher hypothesis/conclusion: D-32 was indeed the prevention from bacteria.
Missing information: The reverse relationship is not possible. Means, the plague cannot cause the occurrence of D-32.

Hence, E is our answer. It clearly states the reverse is not possible.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2017, 06:16
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kalrac wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

(B) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

(C) Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

(D) No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

(E) The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.


Let’s review the two roles played by assumptions:

Supporter Assumption: These assumptions link together new or rogue elements in the stimulus or fill logical gaps in the argument.

Defender Assumption: These assumptions contain statements that eliminate ideas or assertions that would undermine the conclusion. In this sense, they “defend” the argument by showing that a possible source of attack has been eliminated.

Three Quirks of Assumption Question Answer Choices

Over the years, certain recurring traits have appeared in Assumption answer choices. Recognizing these quirks may help you eliminate wrong answers or more quickly identify the
correct answer at crunch time.

1. Watch for answers starting with the phrase “at least one” or “at least some.”

For some reason, when an Assumption answer choice starts with either of the above constructions the chances are unusually high that the answer will be correct. However, if you spot an answer with that construction, do not simply assume the answer is correct; instead, use the proper negation (“None”) and check the answer with the Assumption Negation Technique.

2. Avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author.

These answers typically use constructions such as “the primary purpose,” “the top priority,” or “the main factor.” In every Assumption question these answers have been wrong. And, unless, the author specifically discusses the prioritization of ideas in the stimulus, these answers will continue to be wrong because an author can always claim that the idea under discussion was very important but not necessarily the most important idea.

3. Watch for the use of “not” or negatives in assumption answer choices.

Because most students are conditioned to think of assumptions as positive connecting elements, the appearance of a negative in an Assumption answer choice often causes the answer to be classified a Loser. Do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument. As we have seen with Defender answer choices, one role an assumption can play is to eliminate ideas that could attack the argument. To do so, Defender answer choices frequently contain negative terms such as “no,” “not,” and “never.” One benefit of this negative language is that Defender answer choices can usually be negated quite easily.

Assumptions and Causality

“When a GMAT speaker concludes that one occurrence caused another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that the stated cause will always produce the effect.”

Thus, because the author always assumes that the stated cause is the only cause, Assumption answer choices tend to work exactly like Strengthen answer choices in arguments with causal reasoning. The correct answer to an Assumption question will normally fit one of the following categories:

A. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect

Because the author believes there is only one cause (the stated cause in the argument), the author assumes no other cause exists.

B. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs

Because the author believes that the cause always produces the effect, assumption answers will affirm this relationship.

C. Shows that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur

Using the reasoning in the previous point, the author will always assume that when the cause does not occur, the effect will not occur.

D. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed

Because the author believes that the cause-and-effect relationship is correctly stated, the author assumes that the relationship cannot be backwards (the claimed effect is actually the cause of the claimed cause).

E. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminates possible problems with the data

If the data used to make a causal statement are in error, then the validity of the causal claim is in question. The author assumes that this cannot be the case and that the data are accurate.


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


The researchers claim that Delta-32 prevents its carriers from contracting the Plague. They support this claim by noting that a strikingly large percentage of descendants of Plague survivors carry the mutation. We are asked to find an assumption underlying the claim.

(A) The argument is specific to the relationship between Delta-32 and resistance to the Plague. Other diseases are irrelevant.

(B) Again, the argument is specific to the relationship between Delta-32 and resistance to the Plague. Other diseases are irrelevant.

(C) Delta-32 may have existed in its current form before the sixteenth century and the merit of the argument would not change.

(D) The argument does not claim that Delta-32 prevents all bacteria-caused disease.

(E) CORRECT. The researchers claim that Delta-32 prevented its carriers from contracting the Plague on the basis of its presence in descendants of Plague survivors. But it is theoretically possible that these descendants carry the mutation Delta-32 because the Plague mutated the genes of their ancestors. In order to claim that the mutation prevented the Plague, we must assume that the Plague did not cause the mutation Delta-32.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2017, 06:37
kalrac wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

(B) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

(C) Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

(D) No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

(E) The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.


Delta 32 prevents carriers from contracting plague.
strikingly large percentage of descendants of Plague survivors carry the mutation

[color=#ed1c24]A = we are talking about a particular bacteria

B= Relationship b/w plague and bacteria
D= The argument does not claim that Delta-32 prevents all bacteria-caused disease.

C= Delta-32 may have existed in its current form before the sixteenth century and the merit of the argument would not change

E- Correct - it is theoretically possible that these descendants carry the mutation Delta-32 because the Plague mutated the genes of their ancestors.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2018, 09:09
shrouded1 wrote:
kalrac wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?
a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.There is no mention of other diseases
b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.Again no mention of other diseases
c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.To the contrary if anything the article probably needs the form to stay the same
d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.No mention of any diseases
e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.This is right. It assumes the plague does not cause Delta-32, since it concludes on the reverse causality

OA TBD after discussion.

Please post the answers with explanations.



Reverse in causality made me eliminate option E :(. Mutation prevents plague occurence. This doesn't need 'Plague doesn't cause mutation.' What is given in option E sounds irrelevant to me, Anyone one this?
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu &nbs [#permalink] 07 Sep 2018, 09:09

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