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# Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec

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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2015, 22:09
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year
earlier being so bad as that

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that :as much because.....as that.... NOT PARALLEL. Also 'being' is suspect here
B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as becauseas much because of their.......as because shoppers. NOT PARALLEL. Also 'Having been' is awkward
C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as becauseas bad as.....should be followed by a noun. So Incorrect. Also 'being' a suspect.
D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as becauseas much because their sales.......as because shoppers.. PARALLEL. CORRECT !
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as thatas much because ........as that...Not Parallel.
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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28 May 2015, 21:39
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Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.

1) We're looking for the structure as much because...as because...2) "because of + noun/-ing verb or because + noun + verb is correct. "their sales of a year earlier being bad" is a very awkward phrase that functions like a noun but should be stated better (with because + subject + verb). Eliminate A, B, C.

D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that past perfect (had been, not were) is needed to describe an action in the past that happened prior to another action in the past. First the sales were bad and then it was reported.
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 07:02
+1 D
"because of" should be followed by a noun, here there is a clause.
Clause + Because + Clause
Clause + Because of + Noun/Noun Phrase

So D is the correct answer.
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 12:43
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This questions tests a very popular structure that the Gmat loves to test - Because and Because of.
Notice here that there is a split of 3:2 between because and because of in the answer choices.

Usage of "Because"
Jack came late to office because he was working till late last night.

Because X , Y - here X is a dependent clause and Y is the independent clause.

There are two main uses of Because
1) Because -> Modifies a clause.
2) Because -> Takes a clause.

Difference between "Because of" and "Due to"

Delay in the match was due to heavy rain

So the construction of "Due to"
1) Due to modifies noun or noun phrase (here Delay)
2) Due to takes noun or noun phrase

Match was delayed because of heavy rain

So the construction of "Because of"
1) "Because of" modifies Clause
2) "Because of" takes noun or noun phrase

Lets come back to the answer choices now

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
- Because of should take a noun or noun phrase but here Because of is taking a clause hence incorrect.

B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
- Because of should take a noun or noun phrase but here Because of is taking a clause hence incorrect.

C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
- Because of should take a noun or noun phrase but here Because of is taking a clause hence incorrect.

D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
- Because takes a clause and here that is correct.
Also here the parallel structure Because X ... as Because Y is there hence this seems a correct choice.

E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that
- Because is taking a clause correctly but the structure - Because X ... as that Y is not correct hence this is the incorrect answer choice.
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2015, 07:16
akhil911 wrote:
This questions tests a very popular structure that the Gmat loves to test - Because and Because of.
Notice here that there is a split of 3:2 between because and because of in the answer choices.

Usage of "Because"
Jack came late to office because he was working till late last night.

Because X , Y - here X is a dependent clause and Y is the independent clause.

There are two main uses of Because
1) Because -> Modifies a clause.
2) Because -> Takes a clause.

Difference between "Because of" and "Due to"

Delay in the match was due to heavy rain

So the construction of "Due to"
1) Due to modifies noun or noun phrase (here Delay)
2) Due to takes noun or noun phrase

Match was delayed because of heavy rain

So the construction of "Because of"
1) "Because of" modifies Clause
2) "Because of" takes noun or noun phrase

Lets come back to the answer choices now

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
- Because of should take a noun or noun phrase but here Because of is taking a clause hence incorrect.

B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
- Because of should take a noun or noun phrase but here Because of is taking a clause hence incorrect.

C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
- Because of should take a noun or noun phrase but here Because of is taking a clause hence incorrect.

D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
- Because takes a clause and here that is correct.
Also here the parallel structure Because X ... as Because Y is there hence this seems a correct choice.

E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that
- Because is taking a clause correctly but the structure - Because X ... as that Y is not correct hence this is the incorrect answer choice.

That's a very good explanation.
However I try to remember it in a very short way:

Clause + Because + Clause
Clause + Because of + Noun Phrase
Noun Phrase + Due to + Noun Phrase

Hope this helps!!
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2015, 08:49
You are making it far too complicated. Let's recheck it.

Retailers reported (past tense)
...moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier (a year before that past event)

Hmmm... seems like a textbook case for the use of the past perfect, don't you think?

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that

Wrong. No past perfect. Contains being. Bad use of "because of."

B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because

Wrong. No past perfect. Bad use of "because of."

C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because

Wrong. No past perfect. Bad use of "because of."

D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because

Past perfect detected. Because followed by a clause. Leading candidate.

E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

Wrong. Uses simple past rather than past perfect.
---------------------
D must be the credited response.

Why delve into which idiom is correct or incorrect when a simple tense error is staring one in the face?
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2016, 19:13
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2016, 11:35
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Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year
earlier being so bad as that

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that -- Parallelism issue -- as much because .. as that and usage of being , Sales of a year is wrong
B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because -- As bad as -- the comparison element is missing , having been is awkward
C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because -- As bad as -- the comparison element is missing , also usage of being
D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because -- Correct
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that -- Parallelism issue -- as much because .. as that , Sales of a year is wrong ,

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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2016, 05:51
mostly because of is wrong on gmat

i marked D here which is better than E.

i didn't find A,B and C concise
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2016, 22:13
i believe identifying the As X as Y clause is the key here.

Clarity on usage of "had" :-

2 actions at different time frames are mentioned;
1st- Sales were bad last year;
2nd -Reported moderate gains this november;

Since Sales were reportedly less last year therefore the expected moderate gains in November sales were reported;
Therefore the 2 actions are co-relatable and using "had" to denote the earluer of the 2 sentences makes sense;

Now by rules of parallel structure, when 2 clauses are being compared they should start of with identical words, hence one can easily eleminate A and E; On the basis of usage of "had" we are left with only D

Kudos- in case u liked the explanation :D
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2016, 13:28
Concepts Tested :
i) as much x as y ( x n y parallell) ==> as much because…..as because
ii) "because of" is followed by noun or noun phrase

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that --> wrong usage of "because of"
B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because --> wrong usage of "because of"
C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because --> wrong usage of "because of"
D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because --> Correct both errors : "as much because X as because Y"
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that --> "Incorrect structure - as much because X as that Y"
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2017, 06:21
Dear Mod
Is there any other way apart from as much because...as because to find out the correct option. i Was stuck between D and E
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2017, 05:23
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kannu44 wrote:
Dear Mod
Is there any other way apart from as much because...as because to find out the correct option. i Was stuck between D and E

In E, an adverb cannot be used - a noun is required since here the usage is as an object of preposition:
OF + noun/ noun phrase... correct
Thus "of an year earlier" is wrong - should be "of the earlier year": "the earlier year" is a noun phrase, but "an year earlier" is an adverbial phrase.
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2017, 21:32

Thanks
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 03:00
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.

A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

A and C are out usage of being
their sales of a year is awkward E is out

In B we have present been present perfect continuous which is not correct
as something as already happened in past past perfect makes complete sense here

Note:- Always look for time markers in the sentence ex- By the end of the year after ,before and so on

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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2017, 11:27
daagh wrote:
Just one step forward. The idiom should be 'as much because,,,,,, as because'; Choice 4 is the only one that flaunts it. All others use unparallel and unidiomatic expressions.

Hi @daagh, Hope you're well. I've a query about D (4). As far we know that pronoun ambiguity is not tested in GMAT. So, my question is how ''their'' is sometimes used for ''retailers'' and sometimes used for ''shoppers''. Isn't it pronoun ambiguity? Also, May i know the source of this question, expert? thanks...
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2017, 10:10
Nihit wrote:
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.

(A) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
(B) of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
(C) of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
(D) their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
(E) their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

Hi GMATNinja, sayantanc2k, RonPurewal, Hope you're well. I've a query about D. As far we know that pronoun ambiguity is not tested in GMAT. So, my question is how ''their'' is sometimes used for ''retailers'' and sometimes used for ''shoppers''. Isn't it pronoun ambiguity? thanks...
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2017, 11:24
Nihit wrote:
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.

(A) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
(B) of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
(C) of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
(D) their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
(E) their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

D is the only correct option here. This question tests verb tense, idiom and parallelism. "As much as" should be a correct idiom here. Also, 2 events are being discussed here so the earlier event has to be in past perfect.

(A) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that ---being makes no sense here.
(B) of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because --- we cannot have As much ... as ... as .
(C) of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because ------ we cannot have As much ... as ... as .
(D) their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
(E) their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that[/quote] --- we cannot have As much ... as ... as .

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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2017, 11:29
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iMyself wrote:
Nihit wrote:
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.

(A) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
(B) of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
(C) of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
(D) their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
(E) their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

Hi GMATNinja, sayantanc2k, RonPurewal, Hope you're well. I've a query about D. As far we know that pronoun ambiguity is not tested in GMAT. So, my question is how ''their'' is sometimes used for ''retailers'' and sometimes used for ''shoppers''. Isn't it pronoun ambiguity? thanks...

We have two "their" in this sentence. And each of them is used for a different antecedent. It is perfectly conveying the right meaning by pointing individual their to the correct antecedent. Moreover, you should better find errors in the non-underlined part of sentence, rather that questioning the actual argument.

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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2017, 11:37
iMyself wrote:
As far we know that pronoun ambiguity is not tested in GMAT. So, my question is how ''their'' is sometimes used for ''retailers'' and sometimes used for ''shoppers''. Isn't it pronoun ambiguity? thanks...

Sorry, bad news: pronoun ambiguity IS tested on the GMAT. It's just that it's not an absolute rule: something that looks like pronoun ambiguity can definitely be OK, depending on the exact circumstances. Here, check out this YouTube video for more on the nuances of pronouns, and particularly pronoun ambiguity: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhN_KU1bSKU. (Disclaimer: all of these videos were recorded live, so please don't expect polished perfection!)

And mrinal0308 is absolutely correct that there are far more important issues in this particular question, and the pronoun isn't a significant problem here.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much bec   [#permalink] 07 Nov 2017, 11:37

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