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# Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runne

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Joined: 02 Sep 2009
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Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runne  [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2019, 09:15
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

62% (02:14) correct 38% (02:10) wrong based on 159 sessions

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Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runners on the track team are either sprinters or long distance runners, but a few long distance runners do not run the sprint because they are not fast enough. Hurdlers never run long distance because they lack the endurance necessary. Therefore, Ronald must be fast.

For the conclusion drawn above to be logically correct, which of the following must be true?

A. Sprinters are faster than hurdlers.

B. All runners on the track team who run hurdles also run long distance.

C. Hurdling requires more endurance than running long distance.

D. All sprinters are fast.

E. Every runner on the track team who is fast is a sprinter.

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Re: Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runne  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2019, 09:45
Let's break down the argument -

Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runners on the track team are either sprinters or long distance runners, but a few long distance runners do not run the sprint because they are not fast enough. Hurdlers never run long distance because they lack the endurance necessary.

Given the above: Since Ronald is on the track team -> he is either a sprinter or a long-distance runner. Also since he is a hurdler -> he is not a long distance runner.
Therefore Ronald is definitely a sprinter.

Note - Some long distance runners do not sprint because they lack speed. But this info is about long-distance runners and it does not give us any info about sprinters.

But what is the conclusion given in the argument? - Therefore, Ronald must be fast.

but we could only conclude that he is a sprinter from given info.
So for the conclusion to be true - being a part of the latter group should ensure the former condition. Hence all sprinters are fast.

Let us look at the options -
A. Sprinters are faster than hurdlers. Unnecessary comparison. Discard.

B. All runners on the track team who run hurdles also run long distance. Reverse logic. Also irrelevant. Discard.

C. Hurdling requires more endurance than running long distance. Real world trap. Also irrelevant. Discard.

D. All sprinters are fast. Bingo - this is exactly what we are looking for.

E. Every runner on the track team who is fast is a sprinter. TRAP - Reverse logic of what we are looking for. Discard.

Hope this helps.
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Posts: 55804
Re: Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runne  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2019, 05:54
Bunuel wrote:
Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runners on the track team are either sprinters or long distance runners, but a few long distance runners do not run the sprint because they are not fast enough. Hurdlers never run long distance because they lack the endurance necessary. Therefore, Ronald must be fast.

For the conclusion drawn above to be logically correct, which of the following must be true?

A. Sprinters are faster than hurdlers.

B. All runners on the track team who run hurdles also run long distance.

C. Hurdling requires more endurance than running long distance.

D. All sprinters are fast.

E. Every runner on the track team who is fast is a sprinter.

KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

D

Conclusion: Ronald must be fast.

Evidence: We are given that Ronald is a hurdler, and that all the runners on the track team are either sprinters or long distance runners, but no hurdlers are long distance runners. Therefore Ronald, a hurdler, must also be a sprinter. For the conclusion to be logically correct, (D) must be true because if Ronald is a sprinter, and all sprinters are fast, then Ronald must be fast.

(A) makes no sense because the argument states that all hurdlers are sprinters; (B), (C), and (E) directly contradict statements made in the argument.
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Re: Ronald is a runner on the track team and is a great hurdler. All runne   [#permalink] 15 Jan 2019, 05:54
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