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Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2015, 13:31
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the structure is of x,y and z - not x,y and that of Z -> eliminate A and B. The subject is knowledge -> Eliminate E knowledge.....were (it schould be singular was). Elminate D for its ambiguous comparison as much as, and after all, C is much better structured and concise -> Informing here deliveres further description (Verb-ing modifier).
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2015, 23:08
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imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to


Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.



D is wrong .

As is used in place of because. Replace As with because and see if the sentence makes any sense.

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer,BECAUSE it informed his literary style as much as content of his fiction.

Does it makes sense that to say so?? NO. Hence, D is wrong.

C is correct because the the modifier 'informing' conveys the result of the verb-were instrumental- in the previous clause.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2015, 08:16
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In the original sentence "and that of Japan" is wrong. it should have been"and Japan".
Main subject of the sentence is knowledge. So it should take singular verb.
Participal phrase "informing" with a comma preceding it, correctly modifies the preceding clause, with doer of the action is "knowledge'.
Usage of " as much as" is wordy.

in all the above aspects, option C is correct that takes care of all the errors committed in the original sentence. usage of "both and" makes the sentence concise and clear.
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New post 29 Oct 2016, 09:54
imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to



Hi Expert,
I need to have this solution too much, because I'm confused about this question pattern! Here is the correct sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, "China and Japan" simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct?
An Insight from Ron:
x, y, and z are the list of 3 things.
But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’
Thank you.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 17:17
Hi sayantanc2k

IMO, The only issue with D is meaning issue. "as much as" initiates an illogical comparison.
Anything else wrong with D?

BTW, got it correct - easy C.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 19:18
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TheRzS wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k

IMO, The only issue with D is meaning issue. "as much as" initiates an illogical comparison.
Anything else wrong with D?

BTW, got it correct - easy C.

Best
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Other than illogical comparison, there is one more issue with using "as much as": "as much as" is used for some measurable quantity - hence "informed style as much as content" is incorrect.

The usage of "as" (as it informed..) is alright - here "as" is used in the sense "because".
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New post 01 Feb 2017, 10:34
there is something wrong here in the question.

here we are talking about RA's knowledge and then we should not use HIS. we can't use his to refer RA's knowledge. we can use HIS to refer RA.

please correct me if i am wrong.
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New post 01 Feb 2017, 19:21
brs1cob wrote:
there is something wrong here in the question.

here we are talking about RA's knowledge and then we should not use HIS. we can't use his to refer RA's knowledge. we can use HIS to refer RA.

please correct me if i am wrong.

The parts of speech ''Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s'' is adjective. It has been used in this sentence as possessive. If anything is used as 'he' in stead of ''Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s''is NOT ok. But, if any possessive (e.g., his) is used in stead of ''Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s'', then it is OK.
Am I right expert?

N.B. This thread is also seen in other popular thread. So, I request bb, or Bunuel to merge this topics. The link of another thread of same question is given below.
Thank you all...
https://gmatclub.com/forum/ryunosuke-ak ... 35722.html
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 09:19
EducationAisle wrote:
magicmanisha wrote:
OA here is C, however I marked D, could you please confirm weather answer is C or D.


Let us start with a simple sentence and see how it is ambiguous:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as quest for knowledge.

This can be interpreted in two ways:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as (Second world war influenced) quest for knowledge. In other words, second world war influenced:

a. scientific advancement and
b. quest for knowledge.

However, another way of interpreting this is:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as quest for knowledge (influenced scientific advancement). In other words, scientific advancement was influenced by:

a. Second world war
b. quest for knowledge

Now, coming to this sentence, Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s knowledge informed the following two things:

1. Literary style
2. Content of his fiction

With D, the sentence would be:

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

Now, here is the tricky thing. The above sentence can be interpreted as:

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style)

Which means Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s literary style was informed by the following:

1. Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s knowledge
2. Content of his fiction

So, there is an ambiguity of meaning, if D is the answer choice. Now, perhaps this ambiguity might be “tolerated” in some sentence in GMAT, if there is no better option; but here, C is definitely clearer.




Great explanation. I have a quick question about the Both..And Idiom. Shouldn't it be both his literary style and and his . Don't we need a pronoun right after and.
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New post 12 Mar 2017, 22:04
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ajohns52 wrote:
Great explanation. I have a quick question about the Both..And Idiom. Shouldn't it be both his literary style and and his . Don't we need a pronoun right after and.
The construction is both his literary style and the content of his fiction. There is no need to put a possessive pronoun after the and because we are looking for two nouns. Whether a possessive pronoun precedes those nouns doesn't really matter.

By the way, there are two possessives after the and: the one formed by the usage of of and the his. So the content of his fiction is still very much talking about his (fiction's) content. If we put it that way, however, we will end up with a slightly awkward construction: both his literary style and his fiction's content.
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New post 14 Mar 2017, 14:46
sayantanc2k wrote:
iMyself wrote:
brs1cob wrote:
there is something wrong here in the question.

here we are talking about RA's knowledge and then we should not use HIS. we can't use his to refer RA's knowledge. we can use HIS to refer RA.

please correct me if i am wrong.

The parts of speech ''Ryunosuke Akutagawa???s'' is adjective. It has been used in this sentence as possessive. If anything is used as 'he' in stead of ''Ryunosuke Akutagawa???s''is NOT ok. But, if any possessive (e.g., his) is used in stead of ''Ryunosuke Akutagawa???s'', then it is OK.
Am I right expert?

N.B. This thread is also seen in other popular thread. So, I request bb, or Bunuel to merge this topics. The link of another thread of same question is given below.
Thank you all...

https://gmatclub.com/forum/ryunosuke-ak ... 35722.html


1. Yes, your concept is correct.

2. Topics merged. Thank you for pointing out.


But, I'm confused on my own explanation. Can you remove my confusion expert?
The confusion is in the following question, which is discussed in Official Guide of GMAC, edition 2016, SC# 49.

Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months.
(A) executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months
(B) executive's plans, which are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months, were announced on Wednesday
(C) executive's plans for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday
(D) executive announced plans Wednesday to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months
(E) executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months

In this question the correct choice is D. We can easily eliminate choice A, B, and C for the wrong use of antecedent for pronoun 'his'. Here, 'executive's plans' and 'his' can't be the same thing-''executive's plans'' indicates the person's 'plan' and 'his' indicates the 'person himself'.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2017, 17:26
iMyself wrote:
But, I'm confused on my own explanation. Can you remove my confusion expert?
The confusion is in the following question, which is discussed in Official Guide of GMAC, edition 2016, SC# 49.

Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months.
(A) executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months
(B) executive's plans, which are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months, were announced on Wednesday
(C) executive's plans for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday
(D) executive announced plans Wednesday to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months
(E) executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months

In this question the correct choice is D. We can easily eliminate choice A, B, and C for the wrong use of antecedent for pronoun 'his'. Here, 'executive's plans' and 'his' can't be the same thing-''executive's plans'' indicates the person's 'plan' and 'his' indicates the 'person himself'.
You might be confusing the possessive case with the objective case. His is the possessive form of he. Here we are talking about his strategy.

He: subject
Him: object
His: possessive

Even if we don't put anything after his we're still looking at a possessive (that book is his).

The first three options are incorrect because the outlining... clause needs executive, not executive's plans.
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New post 14 Mar 2017, 17:37
AjiteshArun wrote:
iMyself wrote:
But, I'm confused on my own explanation. Can you remove my confusion expert?
The confusion is in the following question, which is discussed in Official Guide of GMAC, edition 2016, SC# 49.

Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months.
(A) executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months
(B) executive's plans, which are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months, were announced on Wednesday
(C) executive's plans for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday
(D) executive announced plans Wednesday to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months
(E) executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months

In this question the correct choice is D. We can easily eliminate choice A, B, and C for the wrong use of antecedent for pronoun 'his'. Here, 'executive's plans' and 'his' can't be the same thing-''executive's plans'' indicates the person's 'plan' and 'his' indicates the 'person himself'.
You might be confusing the possessive case with the objective case. His is the possessive form of he. Here we are talking about his strategy.

He: subject
Him: object
His: possessive

Even if we don't put anything after his we're still looking at a possessive (that book is his).

The first three options are incorrect because the outlining... clause needs executive, not executive's plans.

Yes. If this is the case, then how we can get the antecedent of 'his' in the following question?

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Thank you...
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New post 14 Mar 2017, 21:14
iMyself wrote:
I've written everything about my query in the following link at the last post of that thread. This 2 problems are similar to each other regarding possessive case.
Here is the link:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/outlining-hi ... 94-20.html

Thank you...
The name (Ryunosuke Akutagawa) is a noun. Ryunosuke Akutagawa's, however, is a possessive noun. The word his is also a possessive, and it is possible for a possessive (pronoun) to refer to a possessive (noun). Some terrible English "rules" say that he and him can refer only to Ryunosuke Akutagawa and not Ryunosuke Akutagawa's.

If you see Ryunosuke Akutagawa used: he, him, and his are all fine.
If you see Ryunosuke Akutagawa's used: he and him are not fine, but his is fine.

This sentence uses Ryunosuke Akutagawa's and his. His is okay with a possessive noun.
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New post 05 May 2017, 20:55
imhimanshu wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 79
Page: 686

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

(A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to


First Glance

The underline is long, so there's a good chance that the question will test Modifier, Parallelism, or Meaning issues.

Issues

(1) Parallelism: X, Y, and Z

There appears to be an X, Y, and Z list overlapping the underline: The literatures of X (Europe), Y (china) and Z (_____). Bingo─Parallelism! X and Y are already parallel. Is Z?

The first two items in the list are geographic locations (Europe and China). The third item should also be a location. That of refers to the word literatures, but the list Europe, China, and the literature of Japan is not parallel. Eliminate answers (A) and (B).

(2) Subject─Verb: were

The main subject of the original sentence is the word knowledge, which is singular. The main verb is were, which is plural.

The subject, knowledge, is not underlined, so the correct answer must contain a singular verb. Scan the answers; answers (A) and (E) both use the plural verb were. Eliminate answers (A) and (E).

Note: Why isn't the subject literatures? That's the trap! The word literatures is part of a prepositional phrase─of the literatures─and a noun within a prepositional phrase can't be the subject of the sentence.

(3) Idiom: both X as well as Y; both X in addition to Y

A vertical comparison of the answers reveals an idiom that's changing from answer to answer:

(A) informing his literary style as much as the content
(B) informing both his literary style as well as the content
(C) informing both his literary style and the content
(D) informed his literary style as much as the content
(E) informing both his literary style in additional to the content

Notice that the X (his literary) and Y (the content) don't change, but the construction of the idiom itself does.

Answer (B) uses the structure both X as well as Y; answer (E) uses both X in additional to Y. When beginning with the word both, the correct idiomatic structure is both X and Y, as in answer (C). Eliminate answers (B) and (E).

(4) Meaning

Answer (D) tosses in a lot of instances of the word as: as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. Some might think that this sounds wordy or awkward. Why?

The sentence is attempting to say that Akutagawa's knowledge informed two things: (1) his style and (2) the content of his work. The structure of answer (D) creates an ambiguous meaning. It might mean that his knowledge informed his style and that his knowledge also informed his content, both to the same extent or level. Alternately, it might mean that his knowledge informed his style and that his content also informed his style.

Consider this shorter example: The barking dog scared the mouse as much as the cat.

Did the barking dog equally scare both the cat and the mouse? Or did both the barking dog and the cat equally scare the mouse? it's not clear. Eliminate answer (D).

The Correct Answer

Answer (C) corrects the original parallelism error by dropping the that of, resulting in a correctly constructed X, Y, and Z list. In addition, this answer corrects the subject─verb error, changing the plural verb were to the singular verb was to match the singular subject knowledge.
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New post 06 May 2017, 05:28
daagh wrote:
Choice D’s problems stem from the pronoun ‘it’ and the conjunction ‘as’.

First, it can refer to either knowledge or development. In both cases, it does not fit in logically.

Second, the knowledge was the first factor, his development as a writer is the next factor, and the third is the information about his style and function. The development and the information thereof are independent functions and not cause and effects. D is distorting the meaning by implying that development and information occurred simultaneously or the information occurred because of development. ‘As’ has meaning of ‘because ’ and ‘at the same time’. This is fatal error.



Hello,

I have a question here. If we find a list of items, we separate them with a comma(ex: apple, mango, and orange). I don't find a comma before 'and' in the sentence above. Would you please help me out what does a list without a comma before 'and' signify?

Thanks,
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New post 14 May 2017, 03:50
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Uma wrote
Quote:
I have a question here. If we find a list of items, we separate them with a comma(ex: apple, mango, and orange). I don't find a comma before 'and' in the sentence above. Would you please help me out what does a list without a comma before 'and' signify?


If you are referring to the comma between style/and, please go through this definition of the serial comma.

Quote:
In English language punctuation, a serial comma or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or a Harvard comma) is a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction (usually and or-or) in a series of three or more terms.


If there are two items in a list, the comma may be dropped.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 06:15
[quote="imhimanshu"]
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 79
Page: 686

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

(A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

look at choice C and D.
I think the problem is more simple.
in C, meaning of "both" is more fit to the whole sentence. knowlege is intrumental because it inform both x and y, not because it inform x as much as y.
in choice S, "it" is correct, refering logically to knowledge. D suffer the error that "as much as" is not fit to the whole sentence.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2018, 11:50
imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to



Hi Expert,
I need to have this solution too much, because I'm confused about this question pattern! Here is the correct sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, "China and Japan" simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct?
An Insight from Ron:
x, y, and z are the list of 3 things.
But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’
Thank you.
N.B. Sorry for posting the same comment again!
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2018, 16:30
imhimanshu wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 79
Page: 686

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

(A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

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Hihazelnut,
The options for this question have not been correctly presented as it is on OG

Option B reads "that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed both his literary style as well as

Request you to edit the answer choices.
Yes, the correct answer still remains the same but this choice has some learning from parallelism point of view.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of &nbs [#permalink] 26 Sep 2018, 16:30

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