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# Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to

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Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2009, 19:13
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Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:A, please explain differences.. B looks ok
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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07 May 2010, 10:30
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i would pick (A)

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. -

(1) "began to grow" is better than "began growing again"

(2) "but they began to grow again after the 1991 report" immediately after the comma makes more sense

(3) "the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease" is better than "the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly of red wine"

(B) Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly of red wine, they began growing again
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2010, 00:46
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I3igDmsu wrote:
Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:A, please explain differences.. B looks ok

hi moderator i think the correct version of this sentence actually is:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s
It makes sense. So the version in the whole should be:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Answer should be A.[/color]
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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31 May 2011, 13:40
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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
Correct.
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again.
"red wine" incorrectly refers to consumption.
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again.
moderate alcohol consumption - caused them to begin to grow again. Changes the meaning because the report, not the consumption caused the growth.
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
"red wine" incorrectly refers to consumption.
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again.
reduced risk started them growing again.

Ans: "A"
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2012, 14:41
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

Meaning: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980, but they began to grow after the 1991 report.The report linked moderate consumption of red wine.
Error:No error
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s,
but they began to grow again after the 1991 report
that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

POE
(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.: Correct
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine(modify consumption), they began growing again :Wrong (Meaning Changed)
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption( not parallel with “particularly of red wine), and particularly of red wine, [color=#ff0000]which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease(modify red wine),[/color] caused them to begin to grow again :Wrong (Meaning Changed)
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again : Wrong ( Of missing in “particular of red wine)
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again :Wrong (Meaning Changed)
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2012, 08:52
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(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease-------- perfect foil

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again --------The absence of the preposition turns the red wine without proper link to the mainstream; In addition, the placement of the reduced risk before the moderate consumption blurs the sequence of cause and effect.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again --- moderate consumption caused them to begin to grow again— distorted meaning

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again ---- The reduced risk seems to be linked with moderate consumption only in the report. In addition, the improper sequence of cause and effect is a problem.

E. a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again----The reduced risk seems to have started them growing again; wrong meaning

The original is the best bet

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2012, 22:59
Can some one help me with this
in option C : "Which Was is wrong it should be which were and also the use of " them " is ambiguous as it should point explicitly to "sales of wine" but due to the presence of "mod consum of alcohol and particularly red wine" in between sales and them makes it ambiguous.

Option D : Consruction " with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption," is not correct.....Can anyone help in eliminating this option.

Option E : X and Y "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine"

In particular red wine.....Prepositional phrase
a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report : Not a prepositional phrase.

Parallelism error in option E

I was not able to find any split in option B, except the change in meaning.

Also it will be great if anyone can use the split of X but Y construction, X, Y being parallel to eliminate.
As to go deep in meaning is difficult for most..

I request Jp27, Marcab, vipps and souvik to pls help me out.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2012, 00:05
Can some one help me with this
in option C : "Which Was is wrong it should be which were and also the use of " them " is ambiguous as it should point explicitly to "sales of wine" but due to the presence of "mod consum of alcohol and particularly red wine" in between sales and them makes it ambiguous.

Which were also would be wrong as you are still trying to refer to consumption, which is singular
Them is ambiguous it could refer to "disease" or "sales".
"and particularly of red wine" is not parallel.
We need "consumption of alcohol, and particularly (consumption ) of red wine" consumption in the bracket is understood.

Option D : Consruction " with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption," is not correct.....Can anyone help in eliminating this option.

"(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again"
"in particular red wine" is wrong here! - this is modifier. Sentence should have been
with moderate consumption of alcohol, in particular red wine - u are modifying alcohol here so makes sense.
or "consumption of alcohol, and particularly (consumption ) of red wine" - as it is done in A.
"" with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption," is a modifier modifying "they began growing again"
It sounds as if "they began growing again WITH THESE THINGS" that's the implication of "with" modifies.

Option E : X and Y "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine"

In particular red wine.....Prepositional phrase
a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report : Not a prepositional phrase.

Parallelism error in option E

yes there is def an || issue with "and in particular red wine" and " started them growing again" is also a problem

I was not able to find any split in option B, except the change in meaning.

All the errors dicussed above are present in B.
for example : "particularly red wine" is modifying "consumption"

Also it will be great if anyone can use the split of X but Y construction, X, Y being parallel to eliminate.
As to go deep in meaning is difficult for most..

here X is clause so Y should be a clause. so we can use stuffs inside the Y clause to eliminate choices .
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2013, 14:57
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Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
CORRECT
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
This is a good option, it was between A and B. Here the problem is that "red wine" is not a "moderate alcohol consumption"
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
"which" refers to red wine, and not to "moderate alcohol consumption", changing the meaning of the sentence. "to begin to grow" I'm not sure that is the right idiom (we are in the past); and I would add that the entire structure is not clear "Sale ... declined in the late 1980s, but in a 1991 report " (their are not well linked together)
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
"in a 1991 report" is misplaced, same problem as B for the "red wine".
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again
"and in particular red wine" doesn't fit into the structure, what does it refer to?(it seems to modify the "1991 report") "started them growing" is not idiomatic
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2013, 23:59
LM wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(A).........
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

I just picked A because of the structure - Parallelism.

Sales of wines declined.............., BUT they began to grow..............

Sales // they.
"But" is a good signal of parallelism.
Other answers except A are not parallel. If you don't believe, plug in them and re-read the question.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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12 May 2013, 09:24
LM wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s,
but they began to grow again after the 1991 report
that linked moderate consumption of alcohol,
and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Break the sentence into clauses
1.Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s,
2.but they began to grow again after the 1991 report
3.that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

POE
(B)Incorrect, because after "but" an independent clause should be there and here "particularly red wine" is a non-essential modifier which should be a essential modifier.
(C)construction of sentence is awkward
(D)construction of sentence is awkward
(E)construction of sentence is awkward

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2013, 20:00
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but thev began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

I came to correct choice A , by meaning analysis compared to other choice .
Just one query- about the role of " particularly of red wine"

The construction is parallel

Is this a list ? - If is a list then why comma came before and ? [ I think it is not a list - red wine doesn't talk about moderate consumption]
Is this a modifier ? - Then what is the use of and after comma ? What will be the error if I write

linked moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly of red wine, [construction kept same - no parallelism error] .

Regards
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 01:19
kiranjith wrote:
In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?

Consider the sentence,

The report linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly (consumption) of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

We are talking about a list - consumption of alcohol, consumption of red wine and so 'and' is separating the two entities in the list. The removal of that extra consumption is called ellipsis, and as long as the sentence is clear, you can omit repeated or obvious words.

Usually ellipsis comes to play during comparisons and while introducing examples (as shown above)
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 02:46
kiranjith wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late1980s,but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?

u have to understand the structure and meaning of the sentence before blindly following a rule. comma + and is followed by and ic but depending on the structure. in this sentence this comma has got nothing to do with and . this comma has been used to separate this extra information "and particularly of red wine" from 'with a reduced risk of heart disease'. this perticular line 'and particularly of red wine' is nothing but extra info, take it as an example of alcohol for which this is mostly applicable, so it is separated from the main part of the sentence by a comma and that comma is not a part of and. heres a example for ur better understanding:
i ate a meal of quinoa, a protein-rich grain from south america, and chicken breast. In this sentence theres a comma +and but that comma is not a part of and. the comma has been used to seperate the modifier 'a protein-rich grain from south america' from the main sentence.
hope this clears ur doubt.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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17 May 2016, 06:52
sukanyar wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Second, verb-ing or present participle modifiers can be used to modify verbs.
She went home crying. How did she go home? crying. "How" question leads to modifier.

I get confused in differentiating "present participle" and "gerunds".

She went home crying

seems equivalent to

She went (home) crying

So, it looks like "crying" is the object of the verb "went". When I looked up on the net (for example http://www.grammaring.com/the-differenc ... participle), it says that if it is object of verb, then it is "Gerund".

Hi,
crying cannot be the object, BECAUSE an object is supposed to be the recipient of action...
Yes, home is the recipient - went WHERE? to HOME...
BUT crying is not the recipient..

Generally what I have read and observed is -
if you remove the gerund, the sentence does not stand on its own because it is a noun..
If you remove the participle , the sentence can stand and the reason must be that it is non essential- acts as an adjective so extra info..

here She went home crying...
remove crying... She went home.. perfectly fine as a sentence.....

lets see where crying can act as a gerund..
Crying babies are difficult to handle OR
i do not like CRYING babies...... here CRYING babies is the direct object of like..

Hope it helps
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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18 May 2016, 08:15
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").

chetan2u wrote:
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").

Hi sukanyar,
I will differ on that.
Participal phrases by definition are verbals that act as adjective, so it will always modify a NOUN or PRONOUN..
and yes, I too believe 'crying' is modifying SHE

Ofcourse. Chetan and Sukanya, I too agree with both of you. Definitely a present participle modifier may ALSO act as a noun modifier and hence can be considered to be modifying "she". Nonetheless it can act as a verb modifier as well, as I mentioned in my previous post.

Following is an excerpt from Manhattan SC guide, which may be useful to understand the dual usage better:

"Some verb modifiers may apply to both the verb and the verbs subject. In these cases, you must make sure that the subject makes sense with the modifier.

WHISTLING "Beat It.", I lifted the weight. "

And yes.. "crying" is definitely NOT the object of the verb "went"; "crying" is not a gerund, but a present participle. Moreover the verb "to go" is an intransitive verb and cannot take a direct object.

Nonetheless in " ...began growing", the gerund "growing" is the object of the verb "began".

"They began growing" and "she went crying" do not have equivalent structure.

They began growing: Subject - verb - object ( gerund)
She went crying: Subject - verb - modifier (present participle - could be considered verb modifier OR noun modifier).

If you still differ with me, I would be happy to discuss further to understand whether I have any wrong understanding of the concept.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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18 May 2016, 10:59
I am learning a lot from this discussion. Thanks and hope to learn more on this thread.

I am now thinking that it is this way. When we have the sentence: She went home crying, this is basically a short form of the sentence: She was crying, when she went home.

So, "crying" has nothing to do with "went" at all. "crying" is just modifying "she" and hence, is a participle.

Basically, we can say:
She went home by bus (How did she go home? By bus)
She went home walking (How did she go home? By walking)

But when we say:
She went home crying (Now we cannot ask the question: How did she go home? She can go home by bus, or by walking..but her "crying" has no correlation with going home. "crying" is just modifying "she").
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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21 May 2016, 05:01
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us.

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.

Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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21 May 2016, 05:17
chetan2u wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us.

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.

Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle

Hi Chetan,

In order to get to a concrete end, I pulled out my old Wren & Martin grammar book, my bible for English grammar . I found that you are absolutely right :D. This is an excerpt from the book:

"CHAPTER 29
THE PARTICIPLE
260. Read this sentence:-
Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does.
It is formed from the Verb hear, and governs an object.
The word hearing, therefore, partakes of the nature of both a Verb and an Adjective, and
is called a Participle. It may be called a Verbal Adjective.
Def. - A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of the nature both of a Verb
and of an Adjective.
[Or] A participle is a word which is partly a Verb and partly an adjective.
94
[Note. - The phrase 'Hearing the noise', which is introduced by a Principle, is called a
Participle Phrase. According to its use here, it is an Adjective Phrase.]
261. Study the following examples of Participles:
1. We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.
2. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
3. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
4. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell "

Example 2 and 3 above are similar to the one we have been discussing.
Thank you for the discussion.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2016, 06:25
kiranjith wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late1980s,but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. 'they' correctly refers to 'sales of wines'. correct parallelism- 'moderate consumption OF alcohol, and particularly OF red wine'

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again 'they' is very far from 'sales of wines'. Also 'to grow' is better than 'growing'

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again 'which' wrongly modifies 'consumption of red wine'

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again. Not the intended meaning

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again 'in particular red wine' ??
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to   [#permalink] 07 Jul 2016, 06:25

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