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# Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai

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Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2009, 19:13
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Practice Question
Question No.: SC 123

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 23:31
I thought in A, the subject "the report" needs a verb, like after the report....was published. Is that an incorrect expectation?

Hi Abhijit, after can actually be used both as a preposition and as a conjunction.

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report.
- after used as a preposition (after is followed by a noun phrase the 1991 report)

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report was published.
- after used as a conjunction (after is followed by a clause the 1991 report was published)
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2016, 14:38
LM wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

There are many ways to cancel the option B, C, D, and E. But, I'm going to just talk about to cancel option A.
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
In this sentence, the first part is independent clause (Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s). Then there is a comma (,)-not semicolon. After comma there is a coordinating conjunction (but). That means: both the sentence will be independent clause. Here is a difference between two independent clauses: the first independent clause is a direct sentence (subject+predicate) and the second independent clause starts with coordinating conjunction (but), which is not in underlined portion. So, will I be sure that the next word (after coordinating conjunction 'but') MUST be start with NOUN or PRONOUN of the core sentence?
Thanks Expert...
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2016, 02:57
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."

Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2016, 04:47
iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."

Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...

thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2016, 05:45
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19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...

thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
Thanks...
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2016, 07:45
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Expert's post
iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...

thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
Thanks...

Regarding comma + "and" combination, remembering the following two rules would be enough in my opinion:

1. In a list comma before "and" is optional.
I like the colors red, blue and green.... correct
I like the colors red, blue, and green.... correct

2. When joining two independent clauses comma + "and" is mandatory. When joining two verbs "and" WITHOUT comma is mandatory.

I play and sing... correct
I play, and sing... wrong
I play and I sing... wrong
I play, and I sing... correct

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2016, 08:50
sayantanc2k wrote:
iMyself wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
Thanks...

Regarding comma + "and" combination, remembering the following two rules would be enough in my opinion:

1. In a list comma before "and" is optional.
I like the colors red, blue and green.... correct
I like the colors red, blue, and green.... correct

2. When joining two independent clauses comma + "and" is mandatory. When joining two verbs "and" WITHOUT comma is mandatory.

I play and sing... correct
I play, and sing... wrong
I play and I sing... wrong
I play, and I sing... correct

Brother, the red part makes me confused. Normally, when we make a list of, at least, 3 things then 'comma'+'and' is mandatory.
But, if we don't make any list of, at least, 3 things, then the sentence will be ok, if the second item and third item, simultaneously, modify the 1st item. Otherwise, it will not be ok.
I like the colors red, blue and green.
In this example, the 2nd item (blue) and the 3rd item (green) don't simultaneously modify the 1st item (red color).
If I say:
I'm writing a letter to Asma, my mom and the grandmother of my child.
In this example, there are just 1 person. Here, "my mom and the grandmother of my child" modify Asma.
Thanks brother...

N.B. Here, Asma is my mother name.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2016, 09:51
19941010 wrote:
haha.. right ! totally forgot about the abbreviations ! b/n = between and IC = independent clause.Also, what i meant was what if we don't use ",and" and instead just use ",particularly"
thanks

................1st part................. , ..................2nd part...................
If you don't use ''and'' after comma, you'll get 2 scenarios (as far I know-I'm not an expert, remember!)
1) If the 1st part and the 2nd part becomes independent clause separately, THAT sentence will be considered as run-on sentence. Run-on sentence is treated as wrong sentence in GMAT.
2) If the second part becomes dependent clause (2nd part depends on 1st part; it is considered as modifier of 1st part) and vice-versa or ''direct result'' of the 1st part, then THAT sentence is perfectly fine.
Here, ''direct result'' means ''cause and effect'' situation.
Thanks...
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2016, 11:22
Split1) Parallelism. A says "of alcohol" and "of red wine" . B,C,D and E are not parallel.

Split2) Modifier. In B, red wine incorrectly refers to consumption. Red wine is not a form of consumption, red wine is a form of alcohol.

Split3) SV but SV. In A you can "Sales + declined" = S + V. and then says "but" => S + V = "they began". or in other words = "S+V + but + S+V" => clear way to express yourself. B, C,D and E have the subject "they" at the end of the sentence => creates confusion => makes the sentences passive, unclear, awkward.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2017, 09:43
Sales- Subject
of wines- prepositional phrase
declined- verb
in the late 1980s- prepositional phrase
Sales......1980s- this is IC
IC, but IC- after but we need an independent clause

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?
began- Is this verb here?
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2017, 18:07
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2017, 16:22
warrioroflight wrote:
Sales- Subject
of wines- prepositional phrase
declined- verb
in the late 1980s- prepositional phrase
Sales......1980s- this is IC
IC, but IC- after but we need an independent clause

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?
began- Is this verb here?
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?... yes - it is the subject of the second IC.
began- Is this verb here?.... yes - it is the verb of the second IC.
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?.... yes - it is the subject of the relative clause "that linked moderate consumption ... reduced risk of heart disease."
linked- verb?... yes - it is the verb of the above-mentioned relative clause.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2017, 22:50
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease- Correct
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again - Modifier " moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, ..." is incorrect - "(particularly) red wine" is not an example of "alcohol consumption". note that it's an example of alcohol itself, but not an example of alcohol consumption.
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again-
moderate alcohol consumption did not grow in the 1991 report
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again- Modifier in particular red wine does not modify anything . Red wine is not a type of alcohol consumption but is an alcohol
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again - in particular red wine isn't parallel to anything . If we remove the modifier a reduced ... report, we get a nonsensical sentence

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2017, 00:08
MY CHOICE A

MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS LOGICAL

THAT OF RED WINE

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 20:53
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

The first sentence is correct because 'they' refer to the sales while in the first sentence we can specifically identify that they is referring to the sales and in the other sentences the word they can be referring to any of the many nouns present in the sentence.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2017, 00:12
ANS A)

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2017, 04:25
daagh wrote:
(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease-------- perfect foil

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again --------The absence of the preposition turns the red wine without proper link to the mainstream; In addition, the placement of the reduced risk before the moderate consumption blurs the sequence of cause and effect.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again --- moderate consumption caused them to begin to grow again— distorted meaning

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again ---- The reduced risk seems to be linked with moderate consumption only in the report. In addition, the improper sequence of cause and effect is a problem.

E. a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again----The reduced risk seems to have started them growing again; wrong meaning

The original is the best bet

Hi Daag Sir,

I had a severe confusion between A and B and was not able to make a choice. I was not fully able to support option A as a correct sentence because of the below reason,

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

Analyzing the meaning of the sentence in 1991 report the 'moderate consumption of alcohol' was linked with 'a reduced risk of heart disease'. The 'Consumption of Red wine' was a modifier and bear an example of particular type of alcohol consumption. So why this 'AND' required here? Is not it an incorrect sentence which OG is asking us to choose over other incorrect sentences?

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 07:04
I3igDmsu wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:A, please explain differences.. B looks ok

A Correct
B "Red wine" is not an example of "alcohol consumption."
C "Which" modifies "[consumption] of red wine," but the report linked "moderate consumption of alcohol" with the "reduced risk."
D "Red wine" is not an example of "alcohol consumption."
E "Red wine" is not an example of "alcohol consumption."

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai   [#permalink] 15 May 2017, 07:04

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