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# Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2018, 07:12
gmatexam439 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

Can I safely select A just on the basis of parallelism? -- Sales ..... but they ....
No other option is parallel. All the options start with a prepositional phrase except A, in which but is followed by a pronoun.

Regards

No, your reasoning is not correct. The parallelism is between two independent clauses. An independent clause may as well start with a prepositional phrase - parallelism is not broken because a clause starts with a prepositional phrase.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2018, 16:01
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gmatexam439 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

Can I safely select A just on the basis of parallelism? -- Sales ..... but they ....
No other option is parallel. All the options start with a prepositional phrase except A, in which but is followed by a pronoun.

Regards

To help clear things up for you, gmatexam439, let's look at how to tackle this question if it showed up on your test. The main problem I see with this question is the placement of the phrase "they began to grow again." Since this is referring to the "sales of wines," it's best for it to be placed directly before or after it. Otherwise, readers might get confused about what "they began to grow again" is really referring to.

Let's look at each answer to see if/how they are confusing:

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

This is the CORRECT answer because the phrase "they began to grow again" is directly after what it's referring to. The reader won't be confused about what this is referring to.

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

Okay, so I see two potential problems with this. First, it's placed so far away from what it's referring to that readers might think it's referring to "red wine." Also, saying "they began growing again" might mistake readers into thinking the sentence is about the actual red wine grapes growing again? Either way, it's too confusing, so it's INCORRECT.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

Again, this is INCORRECT because it's too far away from what it's referring to. It also doesn't make sense - who are "them" and why are they growing? Are the winemakers getting taller? It's another confusing construction.

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

Again, this is another INCORRECT answer because the phrase is just too far away. Also, the way this is worded is confusing - was the reduced risk of heart disease caused by drinking more red wine...or were people drinking more red wine because their risk of heart disease was lowered?

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons - the first obviously being the phrase "started them growing again" is too far away from "sales of wines." In addition, the phrase "and in particular red wine" should be next to "alcohol consumption," NOT "a 1991 report. It's confusing to readers what is going on here.

I hope this helps! It's a simpler question to answer, but looks more complicated because of how long it is!
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2018, 23:03
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

Seems okay.

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

red wine wrongly modifies consumption.

Plus "to grow" is preferable to "growing"

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

Moderate alcohol consumption caused them to begin to grow again? No. Plus "Begin to grow again" is redundant.

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

Red wine refers to consumption - wrong.

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Reduced risk of heart disease started them growing again? Eliminate
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2018, 04:17
Can't they in the first option refer back to simply 'Wine' instead of 'The growth of wine'?
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2019, 13:41
prav04 wrote:
Can't they in the first option refer back to simply 'Wine' instead of 'The growth of wine'?

First, anytime we see a pronoun as the subject of a clause, the most logical antecedent is the subject of the previous clause, so "they" most likely refers back to "sales." More importantly, it wouldn't make any sense to claim that the wines are growing, so the reader can easily deduce that there's only one plural noun "they" could be referring to.

And in general, pronoun ambiguity is not a good reason for eliminating answer choices. The are many official questions in which the correct answer contains a pronoun that could be seen as ambiguous. The only time you should even consider the issue would be if you'd reduced the answer choices down to two options, and were unable to find a definitive grammar or meaning error in either choice. More on that issue in this video.

I hope that helps!
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17 Feb 2019, 01:55
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

The option C also has other issues such as a. the use of 'which' links red wine directly to a reduced risk of heart disease instead of a moderate consumption of red wine b. This sentence seems to be conveying that moderate consumption caused sales to grow again which does not make sense.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2019, 03:56
Is Choice B a run on sentence? Sales declined.. is the independent clause 1 and after the 1991 report that linked,..they began growing again is independent clause 2.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2019, 08:50
jayarora wrote:
Is Choice B a run on sentence? Sales declined.. is the independent clause 1 and after the 1991 report that linked,..they began growing again is independent clause 2.

Hi Jay, run-on sentence is when two Independent clauses are connected by just a comma.

In option B, the two Independent clauses (that you've correctly identified) are correctly connected by a coordinating conjunction "but". Hence, option B is not a run-on.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses run-on sentence, its application and examples in significant detail. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2019, 06:26
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

Can I safely select A just on the basis of parallelism? -- Sales ..... but they ....
No other option is parallel. All the options start with a prepositional phrase except A, in which but is followed by a pronoun.

Regards

To help clear things up for you, gmatexam439, let's look at how to tackle this question if it showed up on your test. The main problem I see with this question is the placement of the phrase "they began to grow again." Since this is referring to the "sales of wines," it's best for it to be placed directly before or after it. Otherwise, readers might get confused about what "they began to grow again" is really referring to.

Let's look at each answer to see if/how they are confusing:

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

This is the CORRECT answer because the phrase "they began to grow again" is directly after what it's referring to. The reader won't be confused about what this is referring to.

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

Okay, so I see two potential problems with this. First, it's placed so far away from what it's referring to that readers might think it's referring to "red wine." Also, saying "they began growing again" might mistake readers into thinking the sentence is about the actual red wine grapes growing again? Either way, it's too confusing, so it's INCORRECT.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

Again, this is INCORRECT because it's too far away from what it's referring to. It also doesn't make sense - who are "them" and why are they growing? Are the winemakers getting taller? It's another confusing construction.

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

Again, this is another INCORRECT answer because the phrase is just too far away. Also, the way this is worded is confusing - was the reduced risk of heart disease caused by drinking more red wine...or were people drinking more red wine because their risk of heart disease was lowered?

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons - the first obviously being the phrase "started them growing again" is too far away from "sales of wines." In addition, the phrase "and in particular red wine" should be next to "alcohol consumption," NOT "a 1991 report. It's confusing to readers what is going on here.

I hope this helps! It's a simpler question to answer, but looks more complicated because of how long it is!

Hi EMPOWERgmatVerbal and other experts,

It took me almost 3 mins to solve this question and I still got it wrong.
May I know some tips to allow me correctly compare the wrong parts of all 5 questions and quickly choose the correct answer?

Per my speed now, I cannot solve this question under 2 mins.
The first thing I compare is the word "they". If there is any sentence using "it", I will cross it out, but unfortunately all of the questions are using "they" to refer to sales.
Then I started to look at strange structure, eliminating (C), (D), (E).

After left with (A) and (B), I felt I already run out of time and quickly chose (B).

Sometimes comparing 'non-essential things' takes plenty of seconds, especially if the sentence is long.
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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2019, 07:22
A doe snot make sense to me. Grammatically it is correct but logically it is not. A and B means these are two different things so they can be parallel. But alcohol and red wine are not two different things. Red wine is a subcategory of alcohol. It's like to say "female, and girls" or "food, and rice", how are they parallel? "particularly" here does not make them parallel....
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2019, 15:30
aidyn wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

Can I safely select A just on the basis of parallelism? -- Sales ..... but they ....
No other option is parallel. All the options start with a prepositional phrase except A, in which but is followed by a pronoun.

Regards

To help clear things up for you, gmatexam439, let's look at how to tackle this question if it showed up on your test. The main problem I see with this question is the placement of the phrase "they began to grow again." Since this is referring to the "sales of wines," it's best for it to be placed directly before or after it. Otherwise, readers might get confused about what "they began to grow again" is really referring to.

Let's look at each answer to see if/how they are confusing:

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

This is the CORRECT answer because the phrase "they began to grow again" is directly after what it's referring to. The reader won't be confused about what this is referring to.

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

Okay, so I see two potential problems with this. First, it's placed so far away from what it's referring to that readers might think it's referring to "red wine." Also, saying "they began growing again" might mistake readers into thinking the sentence is about the actual red wine grapes growing again? Either way, it's too confusing, so it's INCORRECT.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

Again, this is INCORRECT because it's too far away from what it's referring to. It also doesn't make sense - who are "them" and why are they growing? Are the winemakers getting taller? It's another confusing construction.

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

Again, this is another INCORRECT answer because the phrase is just too far away. Also, the way this is worded is confusing - was the reduced risk of heart disease caused by drinking more red wine...or were people drinking more red wine because their risk of heart disease was lowered?

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons - the first obviously being the phrase "started them growing again" is too far away from "sales of wines." In addition, the phrase "and in particular red wine" should be next to "alcohol consumption," NOT "a 1991 report. It's confusing to readers what is going on here.

I hope this helps! It's a simpler question to answer, but looks more complicated because of how long it is!

Hi EMPOWERgmatVerbal and other experts,

It took me almost 3 mins to solve this question and I still got it wrong.
May I know some tips to allow me correctly compare the wrong parts of all 5 questions and quickly choose the correct answer?

Per my speed now, I cannot solve this question under 2 mins.
The first thing I compare is the word "they". If there is any sentence using "it", I will cross it out, but unfortunately all of the questions are using "they" to refer to sales.
Then I started to look at strange structure, eliminating (C), (D), (E).

After left with (A) and (B), I felt I already run out of time and quickly chose (B).

Sometimes comparing 'non-essential things' takes plenty of seconds, especially if the sentence is long.

Thanks for the question, aidyn!

This is why, if you read over my explanations, I start by highlighting the differences between the options only. Here is where you said you started:

The first thing I compare is the word "they". If there is any sentence using "it", I will cross it out, but unfortunately all of the questions are using "they" to refer to sales.=

You ended up focusing first on something that was the same in all 5 options, and checking it closely, rather than starting by finding the differences and going from there.

Remember - look for the differences first and focus on those, rather than focusing on specific grammar problems.

On test day, if you've done your training well, it will be okay if 1-2 questions take you longer than 2 minutes because you'll probably save a lot of time answering others very quickly.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2019, 21:52
GMATNinja daagh

A small doubt.
Is "1991" as adjective acceptable on "1991 report" ? Is it equivalent to "report OF 1991" ?
I am recalling correct ans of a similar question from OG,
Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surfaces.
15-year effort = effort OF 15 year
?
Can we conclude that any such phrases that can be written as <noun> OF <adj>, can also be written as <adj><noun>?

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2019, 07:03
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, [B]but[B] they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, [B]and particularly of red wine[B], with a reduced risk of heart disease.

As I try to analyze the above sentence, I could understand "But" as the IC connector. Can someone explain the function of following phrase:
"and particularly of red wine" ?

It seems to modify "alcohol", but it such a scenario why is "and" used ?
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2019, 22:45
1
Adi88 Since the phrase includes "of," it needs to modify "consumption," not "alcohol." Sure, we could cut this down by saying "consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine," but it's common to use "and" to indicate that we are emphasizing one particular element of a group. If we were just talking about consumption of two different things, we'd say "and of" without the comma:

The disease can be exacerbated by the consumption of alcohol and of sugary foods.

When we are emphasizing a subgroup, the comma makes it clear that this is an aside that adds specificity:

She is a fan of comedy films, and of this film in particular.
New Yorkers, and residents of Brooklyn in particular, will enjoy this book.

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2019, 11:45
1
Sumi1010 wrote:
GMATNinja daagh

A small doubt.
Is "1991" as adjective acceptable on "1991 report" ? Is it equivalent to "report OF 1991" ?
I am recalling correct ans of a similar question from OG,
Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surfaces.
15-year effort = effort OF 15 year
?
Can we conclude that any such phrases that can be written as <noun> OF <adj>, can also be written as <adj><noun>?

Luckily, all five answer choices use "1991 report," so we don't need to worry about it!

I say this pretty often, and here it comes again: it's generally a bad idea to take something you see in one SC problem and turn it into a rigid rule. In THIS particular question, "1991" modifies "report" in every option, so we know that using the year as a modifier is okay here.

Does that mean we can, "conclude that any such phrases that can be written as <noun> OF <adj>, can also be written as <adj><noun>?" I wouldn't take it that far. GMAT SC isn't about coming up with a list of rules to blindly apply to future problems. It's about comparing five options and determining which is the best AMONG those five.

(Check out this post for more on that general idea.)

I hope this helps!
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2019, 22:31
I3igDmsu wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 123

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

mikemcgarry IanStewart VeritasKarishma daagh EMPOWERgmatVerbal EMPOWERgmatRichC DmitryFarber GMATNinjaTwo

1. Moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly of red wine - this sentence structure is correct because of correct parallelism between "of alcohol" and "of red wine".
In case I tweak this sentence - moderate alcohol consumption, particularly of red wine - Will it be parallel?
As per my analysis - as long as we consider red wine to be a sub-group of "alcohol", this construction should be correct
If it is wrong, what is the exact reason?

2. While I know that "moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine" is incorrect. I am unable to dispel the thought that "red wine" can refer to a far away noun "alcohol". Then why is this construction incorrect?
As per my analysis - "particularly of red wine" is not correct because it is not a noun phrase. A noun phrase has a structure - "noun + that/which/of etc. + phrase describing the noun" - similar to "particularly of red wine"
Is my understanding correct?

3. In option B, while almost everyone has focused on "moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine,", I would like to know if the use of "past continuous tense" is correct?
As per my analysis - past continuous tense is used when we need to show that a simultaneous action is occurring along with another event. The action "they began growing," did not happen instantly after the report was published. Rather the growth must have taken time to manifest.
Is the applicability of past continuous tense correct?
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2019, 10:18
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aniket16c These are very subtle questions, and they take us beyond what the GMAT is likely to test. I can give my opinion, but I'm not sure all of these are amenable to a definitive ruling.

1. We can't say that your new version violates parallelism, since there really isn't a parallelism cue. Certainly, we can use a prepositional phrase in a modifier when it isn't also applied to the main noun: "Heavy rain, especially in the Northwest . . . " I don't think I'd be likely to write the thought the way you propose, but I wouldn't rule out an answer on that basis alone.

2. "Particularly red wine" (with or without the "of") is not a noun phrase, since "particularly" is not a noun. It's a modifier, and it can't modify "alcohol" because "alcohol" is itself just working as a modifier for "consumption." (Remember that when we see two nouns in a row, the first one is usually working as an adjective.) So "consumption" is the only noun available to modify.

3. The distinction about "began growing" vs. "began to grow" doesn't matter here, because anything that begins has to do so at some point in time. We might get away with "began growing" here, but it's clearly not required. I'd prefer the infinitive (as used in A), but I can't cite a rule for that.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2020, 23:56
(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease - correct answer. Meaning of the sentence – The sales of wine declined and then they began to grow once the report linked moderate consumption of alcohol with reduced risk of heart disease. And is a parallelism marker. Moderate consumption of alcohol is parallel to (moderate consumption) particularly of red wine.

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
- This sentence makes it seem like particularly red wine is a type of moderate alcohol consumption.
It is better to place the fact that sales began to grow again right after the sales of wine declined. That makes it clear that sales of wines declined but then they began to grow again. Additionally, if you compare with A ‘they began to grow again’ is much better than ‘they began growing again’. The placement of this modifier right after the sales is also better.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
- usage of which here is incorrect. Moderate alcohol consumption was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease. Here which seems to modify red wine. Again, in option A ‘they began to grow again’ is much better than ‘caused them to begin to grow again’. The placement of this modifier right after the sales is also better.

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
Same problem as B with ‘they began growing again’. Reduced heart disease is linked with moderate alcohol consumption. This construction of reduced risk of heart disease linked in a report is very confusing.

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again
Same problem as B with the modifier “started them growing again”. moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report is confusing. Makes it seem like the moderate alcohol consumption is present in a report.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to   [#permalink] 14 Feb 2020, 23:56

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