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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2014, 02:46
kiranjith wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late1980s,but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?

u have to understand the structure and meaning of the sentence before blindly following a rule. comma + and is followed by and ic but depending on the structure. in this sentence this comma has got nothing to do with and . this comma has been used to separate this extra information "and particularly of red wine" from 'with a reduced risk of heart disease'. this perticular line 'and particularly of red wine' is nothing but extra info, take it as an example of alcohol for which this is mostly applicable, so it is separated from the main part of the sentence by a comma and that comma is not a part of and. heres a example for ur better understanding:
i ate a meal of quinoa, a protein-rich grain from south america, and chicken breast. In this sentence theres a comma +and but that comma is not a part of and. the comma has been used to seperate the modifier 'a protein-rich grain from south america' from the main sentence.
hope this clears ur doubt.

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2015, 01:58
"sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again.."

Choice C: In"...moderate alcohol consumption, particularly of red wine, which was.."

understand that " particularly of red wine" modifies consumption rather than moderate consumption as "moderate alcohol consumption" is not a noun phrase and therefore, " particularly of red wine" modifies the proceeding noun which is consumption. SO, does it solve the problem if we change "moderate alcohol consumption" to "moderate consumption"? or we must use "of" to create a noun phrase?

" which was", can someone pls explain why does it modify red wine, not consumption of red wine? Thanks.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2016, 06:52
sukanyar wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Second, verb-ing or present participle modifiers can be used to modify verbs.
She went home crying. How did she go home? crying. "How" question leads to modifier.

I get confused in differentiating "present participle" and "gerunds".

She went home crying

seems equivalent to

She went (home) crying

So, it looks like "crying" is the object of the verb "went". When I looked up on the net (for example http://www.grammaring.com/the-differenc ... participle), it says that if it is object of verb, then it is "Gerund". :roll:


Hi,
crying cannot be the object, BECAUSE an object is supposed to be the recipient of action...
Yes, home is the recipient - went WHERE? to HOME...
BUT crying is not the recipient..

Generally what I have read and observed is -
if you remove the gerund, the sentence does not stand on its own because it is a noun..
If you remove the participle , the sentence can stand and the reason must be that it is non essential- acts as an adjective so extra info..


here She went home crying...
remove crying... She went home.. perfectly fine as a sentence.....

lets see where crying can act as a gerund..
Crying babies are difficult to handle OR
i do not like CRYING babies...... here CRYING babies is the direct object of like..

Hope it helps
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 08:15
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").


chetan2u wrote:
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").


Hi sukanyar,
I will differ on that.
Participal phrases by definition are verbals that act as adjective, so it will always modify a NOUN or PRONOUN..
and yes, I too believe 'crying' is modifying SHE


Ofcourse. Chetan and Sukanya, I too agree with both of you. Definitely a present participle modifier may ALSO act as a noun modifier and hence can be considered to be modifying "she". Nonetheless it can act as a verb modifier as well, as I mentioned in my previous post.

Following is an excerpt from Manhattan SC guide, which may be useful to understand the dual usage better:

"Some verb modifiers may apply to both the verb and the verbs subject. In these cases, you must make sure that the subject makes sense with the modifier.

WHISTLING "Beat It.", I lifted the weight. "

And yes.. "crying" is definitely NOT the object of the verb "went"; "crying" is not a gerund, but a present participle. Moreover the verb "to go" is an intransitive verb and cannot take a direct object.

Nonetheless in " ...began growing", the gerund "growing" is the object of the verb "began".

"They began growing" and "she went crying" do not have equivalent structure.

They began growing: Subject - verb - object ( gerund)
She went crying: Subject - verb - modifier (present participle - could be considered verb modifier OR noun modifier).

If you still differ with me, I would be happy to discuss further to understand whether I have any wrong understanding of the concept.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 10:59
I am learning a lot from this discussion. Thanks and hope to learn more on this thread.

I am now thinking that it is this way. When we have the sentence: She went home crying, this is basically a short form of the sentence: She was crying, when she went home.

So, "crying" has nothing to do with "went" at all. "crying" is just modifying "she" and hence, is a participle.

Basically, we can say:
She went home by bus (How did she go home? By bus)
She went home walking (How did she go home? By walking)

But when we say:
She went home crying (Now we cannot ask the question: How did she go home? She can go home by bus, or by walking..but her "crying" has no correlation with going home. "crying" is just modifying "she").

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New post 21 May 2016, 05:01
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us. :)

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.



Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle
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New post 21 May 2016, 05:17
chetan2u wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us. :)

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.



Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle


Hi Chetan,

In order to get to a concrete end, I pulled out my old Wren & Martin grammar book, my bible for English grammar . I found that you are absolutely right :D. This is an excerpt from the book:

"CHAPTER 29
THE PARTICIPLE
260. Read this sentence:-
Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does.
It is formed from the Verb hear, and governs an object.
The word hearing, therefore, partakes of the nature of both a Verb and an Adjective, and
is called a Participle. It may be called a Verbal Adjective.
Def. - A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of the nature both of a Verb
and of an Adjective.
[Or] A participle is a word which is partly a Verb and partly an adjective.
94
[Note. - The phrase 'Hearing the noise', which is introduced by a Principle, is called a
Participle Phrase. According to its use here, it is an Adjective Phrase.]
261. Study the following examples of Participles:
1. We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.
2. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
3. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
4. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell "

Example 2 and 3 above are similar to the one we have been discussing.
Thank you for the discussion.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2016, 06:25
kiranjith wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late1980s,but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?


(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. 'they' correctly refers to 'sales of wines'. correct parallelism- 'moderate consumption OF alcohol, and particularly OF red wine'

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again 'they' is very far from 'sales of wines'. Also 'to grow' is better than 'growing'

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again 'which' wrongly modifies 'consumption of red wine'

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again. Not the intended meaning

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again 'in particular red wine' ??
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2016, 23:31
abhibad wrote:
I thought in A, the subject "the report" needs a verb, like after the report....was published. Is that an incorrect expectation?

Hi Abhijit, after can actually be used both as a preposition and as a conjunction.

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report.
- after used as a preposition (after is followed by a noun phrase the 1991 report)

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report was published.
- after used as a conjunction (after is followed by a clause the 1991 report was published)
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2016, 14:38
LM wrote:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again


There are many ways to cancel the option B, C, D, and E. But, I'm going to just talk about to cancel option A.
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
In this sentence, the first part is independent clause (Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s). Then there is a comma (,)-not semicolon. After comma there is a coordinating conjunction (but). That means: both the sentence will be independent clause. Here is a difference between two independent clauses: the first independent clause is a direct sentence (subject+predicate) and the second independent clause starts with coordinating conjunction (but), which is not in underlined portion. So, will I be sure that the next word (after coordinating conjunction 'but') MUST be start with NOUN or PRONOUN of the core sentence?
Thanks Expert...
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New post 16 Sep 2016, 02:57
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."


Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...
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New post 16 Sep 2016, 04:47
iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."


Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

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19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...
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iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...


Regarding comma + "and" combination, remembering the following two rules would be enough in my opinion:

1. In a list comma before "and" is optional.
I like the colors red, blue and green.... correct
I like the colors red, blue, and green.... correct

2. When joining two independent clauses comma + "and" is mandatory. When joining two verbs "and" WITHOUT comma is mandatory.

I play and sing... correct
I play, and sing... wrong
I play and I sing... wrong
I play, and I sing... correct

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2016, 08:50
sayantanc2k wrote:
iMyself wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...


Regarding comma + "and" combination, remembering the following two rules would be enough in my opinion:

1. In a list comma before "and" is optional.
I like the colors red, blue and green.... correct
I like the colors red, blue, and green.... correct

2. When joining two independent clauses comma + "and" is mandatory. When joining two verbs "and" WITHOUT comma is mandatory.

I play and sing... correct
I play, and sing... wrong
I play and I sing... wrong
I play, and I sing... correct

Brother, the red part makes me confused. Normally, when we make a list of, at least, 3 things then 'comma'+'and' is mandatory.
But, if we don't make any list of, at least, 3 things, then the sentence will be ok, if the second item and third item, simultaneously, modify the 1st item. Otherwise, it will not be ok.
Here, in your example:
I like the colors red, blue and green.
In this example, the 2nd item (blue) and the 3rd item (green) don't simultaneously modify the 1st item (red color).
If I say:
I'm writing a letter to Asma, my mom and the grandmother of my child.
In this example, there are just 1 person. Here, "my mom and the grandmother of my child" modify Asma.
Thanks brother...

N.B. Here, Asma is my mother name.
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2016, 09:51
19941010 wrote:
haha.. right ! totally forgot about the abbreviations ! b/n = between and IC = independent clause.Also, what i meant was what if we don't use ",and" and instead just use ",particularly"
thanks

................1st part................. , ..................2nd part...................
If you don't use ''and'' after comma, you'll get 2 scenarios (as far I know-I'm not an expert, remember!)
1) If the 1st part and the 2nd part becomes independent clause separately, THAT sentence will be considered as run-on sentence. Run-on sentence is treated as wrong sentence in GMAT.
2) If the second part becomes dependent clause (2nd part depends on 1st part; it is considered as modifier of 1st part) and vice-versa or ''direct result'' of the 1st part, then THAT sentence is perfectly fine.
Here, ''direct result'' means ''cause and effect'' situation.
Thanks...
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2016, 11:22
Split1) Parallelism. A says "of alcohol" and "of red wine" . B,C,D and E are not parallel.

Split2) Modifier. In B, red wine incorrectly refers to consumption. Red wine is not a form of consumption, red wine is a form of alcohol.

Split3) SV but SV. In A you can "Sales + declined" = S + V. and then says "but" => S + V = "they began". or in other words = "S+V + but + S+V" => clear way to express yourself. B, C,D and E have the subject "they" at the end of the sentence => creates confusion => makes the sentences passive, unclear, awkward.

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 09:43
Please help me to identify clauses and subject verb in the question stem.
Please review below:
Sales- Subject
of wines- prepositional phrase
declined- verb
in the late 1980s- prepositional phrase
Sales......1980s- this is IC
IC, but IC- after but we need an independent clause

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?
began- Is this verb here?
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?
linked- verb?

Please confirm

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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 18:07
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow agai   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2017, 18:07

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