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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to

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Practice Question
Question No.: SC 123

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

First Glance

A long underline with multiple commas points to potential Modifier, Meaning, and Parallelism issues.

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2016, 06:45
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iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...


Regarding comma + "and" combination, remembering the following two rules would be enough in my opinion:

1. In a list comma before "and" is optional.
I like the colors red, blue and green.... correct
I like the colors red, blue, and green.... correct

2. When joining two independent clauses comma + "and" is mandatory. When joining two verbs "and" WITHOUT comma is mandatory.

I play and sing... correct
I play, and sing... wrong
I play and I sing... wrong
I play, and I sing... correct
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New post 31 May 2011, 12:40
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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
Correct.
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again.
"red wine" incorrectly refers to consumption.
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again.
moderate alcohol consumption - caused them to begin to grow again. Changes the meaning because the report, not the consumption caused the growth.
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
"red wine" incorrectly refers to consumption.
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again.
reduced risk started them growing again.

Ans: "A"
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2019, 10:18
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aniket16c These are very subtle questions, and they take us beyond what the GMAT is likely to test. I can give my opinion, but I'm not sure all of these are amenable to a definitive ruling.

1. We can't say that your new version violates parallelism, since there really isn't a parallelism cue. Certainly, we can use a prepositional phrase in a modifier when it isn't also applied to the main noun: "Heavy rain, especially in the Northwest . . . " I don't think I'd be likely to write the thought the way you propose, but I wouldn't rule out an answer on that basis alone.

2. "Particularly red wine" (with or without the "of") is not a noun phrase, since "particularly" is not a noun. It's a modifier, and it can't modify "alcohol" because "alcohol" is itself just working as a modifier for "consumption." (Remember that when we see two nouns in a row, the first one is usually working as an adjective.) So "consumption" is the only noun available to modify.

3. The distinction about "began growing" vs. "began to grow" doesn't matter here, because anything that begins has to do so at some point in time. We might get away with "began growing" here, but it's clearly not required. I'd prefer the infinitive (as used in A), but I can't cite a rule for that.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2016, 01:57
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19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."


Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2016, 04:45
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19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 07:01
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I don't understand why 'and' is present in option A.
I think without the 'and' the sentence would be correct, that's why I eliminated it.
What am I missing here?
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New post 13 Feb 2018, 16:01
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gmatexam439 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

Can I safely select A just on the basis of parallelism? -- Sales ..... but they ....
No other option is parallel. All the options start with a prepositional phrase except A, in which but is followed by a pronoun.

Regards


To help clear things up for you, gmatexam439, let's look at how to tackle this question if it showed up on your test. The main problem I see with this question is the placement of the phrase "they began to grow again." Since this is referring to the "sales of wines," it's best for it to be placed directly before or after it. Otherwise, readers might get confused about what "they began to grow again" is really referring to.

Let's look at each answer to see if/how they are confusing:

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

This is the CORRECT answer because the phrase "they began to grow again" is directly after what it's referring to. The reader won't be confused about what this is referring to.

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

Okay, so I see two potential problems with this. First, it's placed so far away from what it's referring to that readers might think it's referring to "red wine." Also, saying "they began growing again" might mistake readers into thinking the sentence is about the actual red wine grapes growing again? Either way, it's too confusing, so it's INCORRECT.

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

Again, this is INCORRECT because it's too far away from what it's referring to. It also doesn't make sense - who are "them" and why are they growing? Are the winemakers getting taller? It's another confusing construction.

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

Again, this is another INCORRECT answer because the phrase is just too far away. Also, the way this is worded is confusing - was the reduced risk of heart disease caused by drinking more red wine...or were people drinking more red wine because their risk of heart disease was lowered?

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons - the first obviously being the phrase "started them growing again" is too far away from "sales of wines." In addition, the phrase "and in particular red wine" should be next to "alcohol consumption," NOT "a 1991 report. It's confusing to readers what is going on here.

I hope this helps! It's a simpler question to answer, but looks more complicated because of how long it is!
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New post 29 Dec 2019, 22:45
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Adi88 Since the phrase includes "of," it needs to modify "consumption," not "alcohol." Sure, we could cut this down by saying "consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine," but it's common to use "and" to indicate that we are emphasizing one particular element of a group. If we were just talking about consumption of two different things, we'd say "and of" without the comma:

The disease can be exacerbated by the consumption of alcohol and of sugary foods.

When we are emphasizing a subgroup, the comma makes it clear that this is an aside that adds specificity:

She is a fan of comedy films, and of this film in particular.
New Yorkers, and residents of Brooklyn in particular, will enjoy this book.

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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2019, 11:45
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Sumi1010 wrote:
GMATNinja daagh

A small doubt.
Is "1991" as adjective acceptable on "1991 report" ? Is it equivalent to "report OF 1991" ?
I am recalling correct ans of a similar question from OG,
Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surfaces.
15-year effort = effort OF 15 year
?
Can we conclude that any such phrases that can be written as <noun> OF <adj>, can also be written as <adj><noun>?

Please help.

Luckily, all five answer choices use "1991 report," so we don't need to worry about it!

I say this pretty often, and here it comes again: it's generally a bad idea to take something you see in one SC problem and turn it into a rigid rule. In THIS particular question, "1991" modifies "report" in every option, so we know that using the year as a modifier is okay here.

Does that mean we can, "conclude that any such phrases that can be written as <noun> OF <adj>, can also be written as <adj><noun>?" I wouldn't take it that far. GMAT SC isn't about coming up with a list of rules to blindly apply to future problems. It's about comparing five options and determining which is the best AMONG those five.

(Check out this post for more on that general idea.)

I hope this helps!
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New post 16 Dec 2013, 19:00
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but thev began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.


I came to correct choice A , by meaning analysis compared to other choice .
Just one query- about the role of " particularly of red wine"

The construction is parallel

Is this a list ? - If is a list then why comma came before and ? [ I think it is not a list - red wine doesn't talk about moderate consumption]
Is this a modifier ? - Then what is the use of and after comma ? What will be the error if I write

linked moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly of red wine, [construction kept same - no parallelism error] .

Please help .

Regards
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New post 16 Jan 2014, 00:19
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kiranjith wrote:
In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?


Consider the sentence,

The report linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly (consumption) of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

We are talking about a list - consumption of alcohol, consumption of red wine and so 'and' is separating the two entities in the list. The removal of that extra consumption is called ellipsis, and as long as the sentence is clear, you can omit repeated or obvious words.

Usually ellipsis comes to play during comparisons and while introducing examples (as shown above)
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New post 17 May 2016, 05:52
sukanyar wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Second, verb-ing or present participle modifiers can be used to modify verbs.
She went home crying. How did she go home? crying. "How" question leads to modifier.

I get confused in differentiating "present participle" and "gerunds".

She went home crying

seems equivalent to

She went (home) crying

So, it looks like "crying" is the object of the verb "went". When I looked up on the net (for example http://www.grammaring.com/the-differenc ... participle), it says that if it is object of verb, then it is "Gerund". :roll:


Hi,
crying cannot be the object, BECAUSE an object is supposed to be the recipient of action...
Yes, home is the recipient - went WHERE? to HOME...
BUT crying is not the recipient..

Generally what I have read and observed is -
if you remove the gerund, the sentence does not stand on its own because it is a noun..
If you remove the participle , the sentence can stand and the reason must be that it is non essential- acts as an adjective so extra info..


here She went home crying...
remove crying... She went home.. perfectly fine as a sentence.....

lets see where crying can act as a gerund..
Crying babies are difficult to handle OR
i do not like CRYING babies...... here CRYING babies is the direct object of like..

Hope it helps
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 07:15
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").


chetan2u wrote:
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").


Hi sukanyar,
I will differ on that.
Participal phrases by definition are verbals that act as adjective, so it will always modify a NOUN or PRONOUN..
and yes, I too believe 'crying' is modifying SHE


Ofcourse. Chetan and Sukanya, I too agree with both of you. Definitely a present participle modifier may ALSO act as a noun modifier and hence can be considered to be modifying "she". Nonetheless it can act as a verb modifier as well, as I mentioned in my previous post.

Following is an excerpt from Manhattan SC guide, which may be useful to understand the dual usage better:

"Some verb modifiers may apply to both the verb and the verbs subject. In these cases, you must make sure that the subject makes sense with the modifier.

WHISTLING "Beat It.", I lifted the weight. "

And yes.. "crying" is definitely NOT the object of the verb "went"; "crying" is not a gerund, but a present participle. Moreover the verb "to go" is an intransitive verb and cannot take a direct object.

Nonetheless in " ...began growing", the gerund "growing" is the object of the verb "began".

"They began growing" and "she went crying" do not have equivalent structure.

They began growing: Subject - verb - object ( gerund)
She went crying: Subject - verb - modifier (present participle - could be considered verb modifier OR noun modifier).

If you still differ with me, I would be happy to discuss further to understand whether I have any wrong understanding of the concept.
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New post 18 May 2016, 09:59
I am learning a lot from this discussion. Thanks and hope to learn more on this thread.

I am now thinking that it is this way. When we have the sentence: She went home crying, this is basically a short form of the sentence: She was crying, when she went home.

So, "crying" has nothing to do with "went" at all. "crying" is just modifying "she" and hence, is a participle.

Basically, we can say:
She went home by bus (How did she go home? By bus)
She went home walking (How did she go home? By walking)

But when we say:
She went home crying (Now we cannot ask the question: How did she go home? She can go home by bus, or by walking..but her "crying" has no correlation with going home. "crying" is just modifying "she").
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New post 21 May 2016, 04:01
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us. :)

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.



Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2016, 04:17
chetan2u wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us. :)

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.



Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle


Hi Chetan,

In order to get to a concrete end, I pulled out my old Wren & Martin grammar book, my bible for English grammar . I found that you are absolutely right :D. This is an excerpt from the book:

"CHAPTER 29
THE PARTICIPLE
260. Read this sentence:-
Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does.
It is formed from the Verb hear, and governs an object.
The word hearing, therefore, partakes of the nature of both a Verb and an Adjective, and
is called a Participle. It may be called a Verbal Adjective.
Def. - A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of the nature both of a Verb
and of an Adjective.
[Or] A participle is a word which is partly a Verb and partly an adjective.
94
[Note. - The phrase 'Hearing the noise', which is introduced by a Principle, is called a
Participle Phrase. According to its use here, it is an Adjective Phrase.]
261. Study the following examples of Participles:
1. We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.
2. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
3. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
4. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell "

Example 2 and 3 above are similar to the one we have been discussing.
Thank you for the discussion.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2016, 22:31
abhibad wrote:
I thought in A, the subject "the report" needs a verb, like after the report....was published. Is that an incorrect expectation?

Hi Abhijit, after can actually be used both as a preposition and as a conjunction.

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report.
- after used as a preposition (after is followed by a noun phrase the 1991 report)

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report was published.
- after used as a conjunction (after is followed by a clause the 1991 report was published)
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2016, 03:47
iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."


Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 08:43
Please help me to identify clauses and subject verb in the question stem.
Please review below:
Sales- Subject
of wines- prepositional phrase
declined- verb
in the late 1980s- prepositional phrase
Sales......1980s- this is IC
IC, but IC- after but we need an independent clause

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?
began- Is this verb here?
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?
linked- verb?

Please confirm
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2017, 08:43

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