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# Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a

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16 Nov 2010, 02:51
A single concept kills this question quickly.

Lets have an analysis of the situation.

An "-ing" can also be used to state the effect of the previous clause and it does modify the whole clause.Lets understand this by an example.

Despite the insistence of Irish officials that only its banks need additional help, investors continue to bet on an Irish rescue, driving down the bond yields on that country’s debt against a benchmark again on Monday.

You may observe that the action of Investors to continue betting on Irish rescue caused the bond yields to drop.

Applying the same concept to our question,

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, reducing the chance of injury.

The series of warmup and stretching exercises--> will reduce the chance of injury. This prevention of injury is the outcome of exercises.

Correct me if I am mistaken
Thanks !!
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16 Nov 2010, 03:04
I see that everybody's picked C. I picked B.
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23 Nov 2010, 10:52
I got confused with B and C and selected B
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2011, 08:36
whats wrong with B??? i mean to say if "which" points to exercises so is does makes sense !! the sentence can be right then also !!
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2011, 21:12
C as well
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2011, 07:20
still not understood ...why C and not B...
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2011, 10:23
C
reducing modify the "doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises"
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2012, 23:45
I picked C because I liked the word reducing which I found to be the correct choice due to parallel structure. I saw the author use "doing" earlier in the sentence so I thought that choice B would match up in grammatical structure and it also sounded good and concise as well.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2012, 00:30
(A) exercises, and it reduces - Wrong. 'It' seems to refer to dancer.
(B) exercises, which reduces : which reduce could have been a correct choice, but 'which reduces' is wrong
(C) exercises, reducing - correct.
(D) exercises, the routine reduces :- comma is wrong as it joins two independent clauses
(E) exercises, so the routine reduces - grammatically correct, but not so good in meaning.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2012, 02:22
i am not satisfied with Option C, though it best among the options,how can a person do warmup and recuce the chance of injury at the same time????????

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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2012, 11:00
C,as it is clear that Verb-ing modifier is modifying the entire preceeding clause in association with SV pair and showing the result of the warm-up and exercise.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2012, 11:07
This is a good example for a cause-effect sentence.

Cause: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises
Effect: reducing the chance of injury

Cause....., effect starting with 'ing' word.

Example:
The rains were extremely heavy, causing great damage to crops.
Notice the 'ing' in the word causing.

Hence, C fits perfectly here.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 05:05
Not able to choose between C and D. what does reducing modify in c and why is D wrong apart from saying its ambiguous.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 14:14
plumber250 wrote:
Hi Rrkan,

'reducing' modifies 'warm up' it's the warm up that reduces the chance of injury. (this is common sense as well as grammatical sense)

D is wrong, because as others have said there are 2 independent clauses in it, which should be separated by a ; .

James

Hi James.

I think "reducing" is put after exercises with a comma. It should modify a previous clause with a meaningful subject. I'm not convinced by C cause I think the routine would reduce injury. Please clarify. Thank you.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2013, 00:22
perfectstranger wrote:
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

(A) exercises, and it reduces
(B) exercises, which reduces
(C) exercises, reducing
(D) exercises, the routine reduces
(E) exercises, so the routine reduces

Please explain in a detailed way.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos ) . OA after explanations.

EDIT by walker: please, underline tested part.

Hi,

Clearly option A, B and E can be ruled out because of various reasons pointed out.
in Option B, which is used in place "Stretching and Warm up exercises" ie. plural and the verb for "which" should be reduce.

In option C, reducing.....modifies the preceding clause by providing additional information as to how Salsa dancers achieve that. The sentence means that Salsa dancers reduce the chances of Injury by doing warm and stretching exercises. The sentence makes sense.

In Option D ------> The routine reduces makes a Independent clause which is not connected to first IC correctly.

A semicolon would be a much better option. Another way, the Option D could have been written "the routine that reduces...." which means noun+noun modifier construction modifying the noun " warm and stretching exercises"

Option C looks a better option
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15 Nov 2013, 12:54
if second part is a continuation of a first part, it always takes "ing" form of verb, means its related.
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18 Nov 2013, 11:40
walker wrote:
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces - "it" cannot refer to verb.
b) exercises, which reduces - "which" introduces a nonessential clause and modifies preceding noun.
c) exercises, reducing - "reducing" modifies "warm up". nothing wrong with the option.
d) exercises, the routine reduces - I'm not sure that "routine" is unambiguous here. Comma cannot connect two clauses. We need a semicolon instead of comma.
e) exercises, so the routine reduces - the same doubt about "routine".

-----------
Please, correct me if I'm wrong.

can you explain what do you mean by "which" introduces a nonessential clause and modifies preceding noun? Maybe give an example?

Thanks
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2014, 07:40
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 04:44
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 06:18
Still confused... think its B. Non essential clauses generally start with which.. that should be the case here.

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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a   [#permalink] 08 Jul 2016, 06:18

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