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# Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a

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Manager
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Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 04:29
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Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

(A) exercises, and it reduces
(B) exercises, which reduces
(C) exercises, reducing
(D) exercises, the routine reduces
(E) exercises, so the routine reduces

Please explain in a detailed way.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos ) . OA after explanations.

EDIT by walker: please, underline tested part.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 04:51
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Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces - "it" cannot refer to verb.
b) exercises, which reduces - "which" introduces a nonessential clause and modifies preceding noun.
c) exercises, reducing - "reducing" modifies "warm up". nothing wrong with the option.
d) exercises, the routine reduces - I'm not sure that "routine" is unambiguous here. Comma cannot connect two clauses. We need a semicolon instead of comma.
e) exercises, so the routine reduces - the same doubt about "routine".

-----------
Please, correct me if I'm wrong.
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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 05:14
Well, I think between B and C.
if in B 'which' refers to exercises, it should use singular verb 'reduce', but if 'which' refers to "a series of ..." using singular verb "reduce'' seems correct.
Cannot find errors in C either:roll:
tricky question
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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 08:50
Agree with walker, agree with C..

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 09:33
a) "it" can refer to "performance" or "series". Even if "it" refers to "series", it distorts meaning: "a series before every performance" rather than "series" itself reduces the chance of injury.

c) you are right, it is a clause. (+1)

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 10:07
age wrote:
walker wrote:
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces - "it" cannot refer to verb...unable to get you..what you mean..I think it is referring to "a series of warm up and stretching exercises"
b) exercises, which reduces - "which" introduces a nonessential clause and modifies preceding noun.
c) exercises, reducing - "reducing" modifies "warm up". nothing wrong with the option...plz elaborate this point also..I have heard participal phrases(present participle) generally modify the whole clause..correct me if I m wrong...or they modify only the subject of clause..??
d) exercises, the routine reduces - I'm not sure that "routine" is unambiguous here. Comma cannot connect two clauses. We need a semicolon instead of comma.
e) exercises, so the routine reduces - the same doubt about "routine".

-----------
Please, correct me if I'm wrong.

Plz explain text in blue..

yes you are right about 'participal phrases(present participle) generally modify the whole clause'..

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2009, 11:06
its between B & C. Now problem in B is that which generally modifies the noun resides near it. Here which points to a series hence inclined to C

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2009, 00:08
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces

it has no clear antecedent

b) exercises, which reduces

in principle which refers to exercises which does not agree with reduces. I think other authorities accept this construction.
I want to see what the official explanation says.

c) exercises, reducing

this suggests that the dancers are reducing the chance of injury by warming up, a fact that is not true. It is the warming-up that reduces the chance of injury

d) exercises, the routine reduces

if the sentence had a semicolon, it would be fine. Other option could be to change the article the for a.

If the sentence read

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises,a routine that reduces the chance of injure.

would be OK

e) exercises, so the routine reduces

I've never seen this construction, so I don't know whether the routine can clearly refer to the warming-up. In principle, I don't see any problems so I'm gonna go with it.

Let us know the OA please and the OE

Last edited by mikeCoolBoy on 22 Aug 2009, 07:53, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2009, 07:43
why not D....I guess routine is reducing....IMO D

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2009, 07:58
why not D....I guess routine is reducing....IMO D

I might be completely wrong but

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises
and
the routine reduces the chance of injury

are two independent clauses so you need a coordinator, a subordinator or a semicolon to join them

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2009, 08:51
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces
b) exercises, which reduces
c) exercises, reducing
d) exercises, the routine reduces
e) exercises, so the routine reduces

However, I think C is more confusing for me (May be I am wrong). Reducing doesn't have clear reference. Seems like Reducing is modifying to exercises. Who is reducing the chance of injury? Stretching exercise or series of warmup? or Just warm up routine is reducing chances.

As you said there might be a possibility of run on sentence, I don't think so, because "The routine reduces the chance of injury" can be independant sentence only when it clearly specifies which routine, and first of the sentence does the exact thing.

mikeCoolBoy wrote:
why not D....I guess routine is reducing....IMO D

I might be completely wrong but

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises
and
the routine reduces the chance of injury

are two independent clauses so you need a coordinator, a subordinator or a semicolon to join them

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2009, 09:01
I agree that C cannot be the answer to this question. The only possibilities (IMO) are B and E. I haven't seen an official problem with B structure although other authorities accept that construction.

Let's wait for the OA and OE.

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2009, 12:30
my 2 cents
Which need not always refer to the nearest noun, if the noun preceeding which is either object of gerund, infinitive or any other verb form then which can refer to the subject of the preceeding clause.
Here "doing a series of ....and ...." so if we consider series of exercises as object of doing then which can refer to "warm up...". So even B looks like a possible answer

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2009, 04:59
perfectstranger wrote:
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces
b) exercises, which reduces
c) exercises, reducing
d) exercises, the routine reduces
e) exercises, so the routine reduces

Please explain in a detailed way.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos ) . OA after explanations.

EDIT by walker: please, underline tested part.

C for me
A - pronoun error (it)
D - run-on sentence - if it were "the routine reducing", D would be an attractive choice
E - ..., so ... distort the meaning by reversing cause and effect.
because of reducing injury, they do warm up

B and C are close.
But I choose C because "Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance" is the true factor that reduces that injury
In B, how can just a series of warmup reduce an injury? It should contain a word that demonstrates "routine," such as everyday

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 06:04
C.... -ing modifies entire clause , 'which' is used to refer to immediate preceding noun only.
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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 06:36

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 07:25
I also agree with C.
"Exercises" is plural, you can eliminate many sentences.

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 21:41
C.

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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 23:26
confused b/w B & C.

i ll go with C.

explanation as per post by many geniuses.
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Re: Salsa Dancers [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2010, 02:51
A single concept kills this question quickly.

Lets have an analysis of the situation.

An "-ing" can also be used to state the effect of the previous clause and it does modify the whole clause.Lets understand this by an example.

Despite the insistence of Irish officials that only its banks need additional help, investors continue to bet on an Irish rescue, driving down the bond yields on that country’s debt against a benchmark again on Monday.

You may observe that the action of Investors to continue betting on Irish rescue caused the bond yields to drop.

Applying the same concept to our question,

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, reducing the chance of injury.

The series of warmup and stretching exercises--> will reduce the chance of injury. This prevention of injury is the outcome of exercises.

Correct me if I am mistaken
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Re: Salsa Dancers   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2010, 02:51

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