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# SC - North Sea Oil

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Director
Joined: 19 Nov 2004
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SC - North Sea Oil [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2005, 21:34
00:00

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

100% (00:43) correct 0% (00:00) wrong based on 35 sessions

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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating
platforms.
A. which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
B. which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
C. which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
D. which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficient
E. including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil

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VP
Joined: 25 Nov 2004
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Re: SC - North Sea Oil [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2005, 22:15
I am left with C.

1. verb agreement: aproachess .... include
2. parallel construction: reducing ......, using ................, and finding.........

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Director
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26 Mar 2005, 07:38
OIl companies is plural so use "include"

So the answers in contentions are C and D only
.

D is verbose so C stands out with the correct structure

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Intern
Joined: 06 Mar 2005
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26 Mar 2005, 08:03
C
A ans B are out because tenses don't agree. D uses efficient to modify a verb, E is too verbous and does not sound as good as C does.

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Director
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26 Mar 2005, 08:14
nocilis:
can you explain your doubt in solving this question(you can PM me)? As per your standard, I feel that this should have been an easy one for you (unless the OA is not C!)

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Director
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26 Mar 2005, 19:44
The reference key I have (solved by some test taker) says E.
I got C too. Just wanted to pass it by and confirm. Anybody think answer could be E? If so, pl. explain.
I am bothered by C's use of "reducing employment" though!

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Manager
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27 Mar 2005, 10:05
C - parallelism : reducing employment, using new tech. and finding innovative ways.

"finding" dictates the structure.
A better construct would have been "which include reduction of employment, use of new tech. and search for innovative ways".
_________________

Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. -Albert Einstein.

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Manager
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27 Mar 2005, 16:52
nocilis,

C is my choice.
Could you please explain the reason for you to think 'reducing employment' is incorrect?

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GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
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Location: Singapore

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27 Mar 2005, 18:09
A. which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
- 'their reducing emploment' sounds like the oil companies has a drop in employment presently. This differs from the intent of the author. A is out.

B. which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
- 'tehcnology' is not needed to be efficient, as this sentence suggests. B is out.

C. which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
- go with this choice. 'reducing' is parallel with 'attempting' and 'operating'. Efficiently is also modifying the write verb (pump)

D. which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficient
- 'their using new technology to pump oil ' is lenghty and awkward

E. including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil
- 'their use of new technology to be' is lenghty and awkward

C it is.

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Manager
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27 Mar 2005, 21:21
let do a split. the only choices that maintain parallelism are a, b, c. Choice b contains an error (to be more efficinet) as it is somewhat wordy. Choice A is incorrect as "their reducing employment is wrong. C is clear and efficient with words. C is my choice

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GMAT Club Legend
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27 Mar 2005, 22:01
gmat2me2 wrote:
Oil companies is plural so use "include"

So the answers in contentions are C and D only
.

D is verbose so C stands out with the correct structure

You got the right answer but the reasoning is wrong. Just to make sure you get why C is preferred to B so that you can apply the concept to other questions.
B is wrong for 2 reasons:
1- variety of approaches, which includes X, Y and Z
"which" refers to the immediately preceding plural word "approaches", hence one should use "include"
2- I don't necessarily believe, as ywilfred said, that "using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil" is wrong but it is certainly more wordy than "using new technology to pump oil more efficiently" as C says. Conciseness is very important on the GMAT.

E is absolutely wrong. No second thought about this. The underlined part starts with an enumeration and then suddenly pops in a relative pronoun "their" which breaks the parallellism
_________________

Best Regards,

Paul

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Manager
Joined: 02 Dec 2004
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29 Mar 2005, 15:37
Paul wrote:
gmat2me2 wrote:
Oil companies is plural so use "include"

So the answers in contentions are C and D only
.

D is verbose so C stands out with the correct structure

You got the right answer but the reasoning is wrong. Just to make sure you get why C is preferred to B so that you can apply the concept to other questions.
B is wrong for 2 reasons:
1- variety of approaches, which includes X, Y and Z
"which" refers to the immediately preceding plural word "approaches", hence one should use "include"
2- I don't necessarily believe, as ywilfred said, that "using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil" is wrong but it is certainly more wordy than "using new technology to pump oil more efficiently" as C says. Conciseness is very important on the GMAT.

E is absolutely wrong. No second thought about this. The underlined part starts with an enumeration and then suddenly pops in a relative pronoun "their" which breaks the parallellism

Paul,

A question on grammar rule. in this situation "a variety of approaches", should "which" be driven by a variety or approaches??? Is there a simple grammar rule we can follow.

P

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29 Mar 2005, 15:37
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# SC - North Sea Oil

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