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# Scientific advances in the latter half of the twentieth century have

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Manager
Joined: 30 Sep 2017
Posts: 70
Re: Scientific advances in the latter half of the twentieth century have  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2018, 08:10
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the drug lysergic acid diethlyamide?

(A) Research into the drug is promising but inconclusive. not into the drug but rather its effect in terms of dreaming

(B) The neuron receptor sites that normally bind serotonin will also bind the drug. " LSD mimics serotonin well enough to be able to bind at most of the neurotransmitter’s receptor sites, largely inhibiting normal transmission."

(C) The locus ceruleus causes the drug to affect bodily systems more rapidly than normal. the other way around": " In addition, the drug causes the locus ceruleus..."

(D) The drug stimulates norepinephrine and serotonin. the drug actually suppresses serotonin: "LSD mimics serotonin well enough to be able to bind at most of the neurotransmitter’s receptor sites, largely inhibiting normal transmission"

(E) A person who ingests more than 20 micrograms of the drug will have hallucinations. "will" is too strong as the passages mentions only "can"

2. Which of the following best represents the author's primary goal in writing the passage?

(A) to outline a theory and suggest options for further research options, no - a detailed theory is discussed and that it is yet inconclusive

(B) to act as an advocate for additional research to help elucidate a particular theory's validity "advocate" is too strong

(C) to introduce a theoretical construct that has not yet been sufficiently proven correct

(D) to demonstrate the complexities involved in conducting a certain type of scientific research this may be true, but if anything, "complexities" aren't the focus of the passage

(E) to articulate a hypothesis and lay out the case for proving it "proving" is wrong because the study is inconclusive

3. Which of the following, if true, would most undermine the central premise of the Jacobs hypothesis? The central idea: "The Jacobs hypothesis held that the absence of norepinephrine was required to enable the brain to remain asleep, while the absence of serotonin was necessary to allow dreaming to occur "

(A) LSD does not cause as much long-term neurological damage as previously thought. this is a clear outsider

(B) Serotonin and norepinephrine rise and fall in tandem. this would actually give more credence to the theory

(C) Researchers prove conclusively that the level of norepinephrine in the brain is a significant factor in enabling the brain to sleep. not sure about serotonine, but this would seem to go in line with the theory

(D) Some semi-synthetic hallucinogenic drugs other than LSD do not inhibit serotonin. correct, since we would expect significantly reduce, if not remove, serotonine to allow dreaming and hallucinations

(E) The first four stages of sleep are as crucial to the process of dreaming as is the fifth stage. "fifth" is not given

4. According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT

(A) Norepinephrine and serotonin are discharged only during waking states. correct: "Both neurotransmitters are discharged in high quantities only during waking states"

(B) Ingesting more than 20 micrograms of LSD will cause some people to hallucinate. "at doses higher than 20 micrograms, it can have a hallucinogenic effect"

(C) Rapid eye movement is the stage of sleep during which people dream. "At the onset of sleep,<...> the brain to enter the three non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) stages of sleep. <...> When the brain is ready to enter the fourth stage"

(D) LSD causes neurons to increase the rate at which they discharge norepinephrine. " the drug causes the locus ceruleus to greatly accelerate activity."

(E) The absence of serotonin seems to be necessary in order to enable the brain to dream. "The Jacobs hypothesis held that <...> the absence of serotonin was necessary to allow dreaming to occur

5. The passage implies which of the following about the fourth stage of sleep?

(A) One enters the fourth stage of sleep only after passing through the first three stages. "only" is a stretch

(B) Parasomnias, such as sleepwalking and confusional arousals, don’t occur during the fourth stage of sleep. "The non-REM stages typically are not associated with normal dreaming, though parasomnias, such as sleepwalking and confusional arousals, are most common during stage 3" so this leaves space to interpret that they may occur in other stages

(C) “Normal” dreaming occurs more frequently during the fourth stage of sleep than during the first three. correct: "The non-REM stages typically are not associated with normal dreaming <...> the fourth stage, REM, which is strongly associated with dreaming"

(D) Certain neurotransmitter levels fluctuate rapidly during the fourth stage of sleep. "certain" is ambiguous, and other transmitters aren't discussed in the passage

(E) Serotonin and norepinephrine drop as the result of the brain entering the fourth stage of sleep. the other way around: "the absence of norepinephrine was required to enable the brain to remain asleep, while the absence of serotonin was necessary to allow dreaming to occur"

I hope this will be helpful.
Manager
Joined: 16 Aug 2014
Posts: 54
Re: Scientific advances in the latter half of the twentieth century have  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2018, 03:10
13:30 min to read and complete question
3/5 correct
can anyone explain 3 & 4 question
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Hit Kudos if you like the post

Re: Scientific advances in the latter half of the twentieth century have &nbs [#permalink] 27 Aug 2018, 03:10

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