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# Scientists have modified feed corn genetically

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2012, 03:18
Good Question !

In the past, farmers used ordinary seeds in their farms, along with the insecticide to protect it from insects.
Now, last year few farmers used genetically modified insect resistant seeds, which are costlier than ordinary seeds. As seeds are already insect resistant, it require lesser or no amount of insecticide, lowering the cost on insecticides. Still, few farmers used insecticides.
Conclusion=> The above change is unlikely to increase profit.

Analysis:
In general, Profit= Sale- Cost.
As argument doesn't mention about sale, assuming its constant. So, profit in inversely proportional to cost. If cost is incresed, profit would decrease.
Old cost =cost(ordinary Seeds) + cost(insecticide)
New cost=cost(Genetically modified seeds) + cost(insecticide)

As in second case, genetically modified seeds are costlier, extra spending done on costlier seeds needs to be compensated by reducing the cost on insecticide.

For example,
Old cost = 10K(seeds) + 2 K( insecticide)
New cost= 11K (genetic seeds) + Cost of insecticide.

In second case, Farmers' spending of insecticide should be less than 1K for profitable business.

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective. Contradicts the premise itself saying insecticides and modified seeds are ineffective.
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years. price of corn is out of context.
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops. Concern is about amount of insecticide, and not cost of insecticide
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary. Correct, As genetically modified seeds are already insect resistant, more usage of insecticide will reduce the profit.
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop. Its obvious truth that corns are profitable. This doesn't touch the premises itself.

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2012, 19:26
umeshpatil wrote:
Good Question !

In the past, farmers used ordinary seeds in their farms, along with the insecticide to protect it from insects.
Now, last year few farmers used genetically modified insect resistant seeds, which are costlier than ordinary seeds. As seeds are already insect resistant, it require lesser or no amount of insecticide, lowering the cost on insecticides. Still, few farmers used insecticides.
Conclusion=> The above change is unlikely to increase profit.

Analysis:
In general, Profit= Sale- Cost.
As argument doesn't mention about sale, assuming its constant. So, profit in inversely proportional to cost. If cost is incresed, profit would decrease.
Old cost =cost(ordinary Seeds) + cost(insecticide)
New cost=cost(Genetically modified seeds) + cost(insecticide)

As in second case, genetically modified seeds are costlier, extra spending done on costlier seeds needs to be compensated by reducing the cost on insecticide.

For example,
Old cost = 10K(seeds) + 2 K( insecticide)
New cost= 11K (genetic seeds) + Cost of insecticide.

In second case, Farmers' spending of insecticide should be less than 1K for profitable business.

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective. Contradicts the premise itself saying insecticides and modified seeds are ineffective.
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years. price of corn is out of context.
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops. Concern is about amount of insecticide, and not cost of insecticide
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary. Correct, As genetically modified seeds are already insect resistant, more usage of insecticide will reduce the profit.
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop. Its obvious truth that corns are profitable. This doesn't touch the premises itself.

Excellent post! Here is my thinking:

Profit = Revenue - Cost

So if the new seed is used, how much less insecticide can the farmer use to offset the marginal cost of the modified seed?

If the farmer can eliminate the cost of insecticide, perhaps the marginal cost of the seed will be offset by the savings from less pesticide use, resulting in less overall cost and greater profit.

Bottom line-what is the least amount of pesticide that the farmer can use?

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2014, 20:20
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2014, 03:22
D stands out. But even D seems to have a few flaws.

The cost of the genetically modified seeds is high so if they use insecticides there will be a loss. - strengthens the arg
If they do not use insecticides how can it be deemed a profit ? (the cost of the seeds is HIGH ) - how does this weaken the arg to effectively be the right answer?

Can someone plz help ?
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2014, 22:11
1
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Expert's post
janxavier wrote:
D stands out. But even D seems to have a few flaws.

The cost of the genetically modified seeds is high so if they use insecticides there will be a loss. - strengthens the arg
If they do not use insecticides how can it be deemed a profit ? (the cost of the seeds is HIGH ) - how does this weaken the arg to effectively be the right answer?

Can someone plz help ?

Responding to a pm:

Premises:
Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields.
Farmers still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn.
Genetically modified corn seed is more expensive and money saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed.

Conclusion:
For most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Based on previous year's experience, the author is concluding what will happen this year - profits will not increase if farmers use genetically modified seeds.

(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
This information does not affect our this year's profit. If price has remained steady, it doesn't mean it will remain steady this year too.
So whether this year profit will increase or decrease or stay the same, we don't know.

(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary.
This question when answered will tell us whether we can decrease the amount of insecticide used this year. If last year farmers had used more insecticide than was required, perhaps we can decrease it this year without affecting the yield. If we decrease the amount of insecticide, we might decrease costs such that using modified crop seeds might lower our total costs this year. This will affect our profit this year.

Hence (D) is correct.
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2014, 23:20
Hi e-gmat,

Just want to confirm my reasoning.

I don't have doubt why the answer is (D). I just want to confirm that the GAP identified by me was correct or not?

Premise: SC have made GMFC(genetically modified feed corn)
Premise: Farmers tried out and applied less insecticide on GMFC
Premise: The yields for GMFC and OFC(ordinary) were same.
Premise: The overall costs for OFC were less than those for GMFC.
Conclusion: Switching from OFC to GMFC is unlikely to increase profits.

GAP:

(1). The yield of GMFC is not valued more than that of OFC since GMFC uses less insecticide and the customers who buy yields value more for the yield that uses less insecticide.
Assumption: Hence, the price of yield of GMFC is not significantly more than that of yield of OFC.

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2015, 08:01
In the question.it says "Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their ..."
Here it clearly says the farmers used less insecticide...
Why option D is right ?

Posted from my mobile device

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2015, 22:46
Kumarsaravana wrote:
In the question.it says "Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their ..."
Here it clearly says the farmers used less insecticide...
Why option D is right ?

Posted from my mobile device

You have to read the question very carefully:

"Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fi elds and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn."
The argument says that farmers using modified corn applied less insecticide than the farmers using ordinary corn.

(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary
On the other hand, option (D) says that we need to evaluate whether the farmers who used modified corn applied more insecticide than was necessary i.e. whether even less insecticide was needed.

The comparison is with different things. Does it make sense now?
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2015, 18:10
Hi Meghna,

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT . But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Thanks,
Pritisha

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2015, 03:31
MarketingGuru wrote:
Hi Meghna,

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT . But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Thanks,
Pritisha

For (B) vs (D), check this link: scientists-have-modified-feed-corn-genetically-increasing-94161-20.html#p1382766

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2015, 01:19
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MarketingGuru wrote:
Hi Meghna,

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT . But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Thanks,
Pritisha

For (B) vs (D), check this link: scientists-have-modified-feed-corn-genetically-increasing-94161-20.html#p1382766

Hi Karishma,
If option B was something like:
Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn would fluctuate in future.

Will it be a contender then?

Regards,
SR

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2015, 20:24
solitaryreaper wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MarketingGuru wrote:
Hi Meghna,

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT . But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Thanks,
Pritisha

For (B) vs (D), check this link: scientists-have-modified-feed-corn-genetically-increasing-94161-20.html#p1382766

Hi Karishma,
If option B was something like:
Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn would fluctuate in future.

Will it be a contender then?

Regards,
SR

No, it wouldn't be. The price farmers receive for feed corn is the same - whether they use genetically modified seeds or ordinary seeds. What we need to figure out is whether the profits will increase if they switched to genetically modified seeds i.e. if one farmer uses ordinary seeds this year and another uses genetically modified seeds this year, whose profit will be higher? Since revenue earned by both will the same, the question is which farmer's cost will be lower?
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2015, 10:28
Quote:

No, it wouldn't be. The price farmers receive for feed corn is the same - whether they use genetically modified seeds or ordinary seeds. What we need to figure out is whether the profits will increase if they switched to genetically modified seeds i.e. if one farmer uses ordinary seeds this year and another uses genetically modified seeds this year, whose profit will be higher? Since revenue earned by both will the same, the question is which farmer's cost will be lower?

Thanks Karishma !!
Now I got it.It's true that Selling price is not a concern here. It will be same for corn grown through modified seeds or through ordinary seeds.
The concern is how the profits would be impacted - something that is directly related to the cost incurred in the growth of corn.

Regards,
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2015, 05:58
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2015, 11:02
People are saying B is wrong because the price is the same for both. I dont understand how the price of fed corn is the same as gmo feed corn

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2015, 11:57
jai1902 wrote:
Of course, we know the OA and we also know the reasoning. Still let us see the logical flow of the argument.

For same yield,

Premise 1: Conventional Corn-- uses X kg of Pesticide but seed is less expensive.
Premise 2: GM Corn-- uses 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive.
Conclusion: Though 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive. So, No profit INCREASE.

Assumption: Profit = Selling Price - Total Cost (pesticide + seed)

Option D introduces a new information which states that 'less than X kg' is still very high than 'actually necessary'. So, if we accept the info provided by Option D, Total Cost will reduce if we use only 'necessary' qty of pesticide.

For those, who still find Option A and Option B convincing, read below:

A. (I am not very happy with Official explanation given in the book but there is still another big flaw)
Insects SOMETIMES might infest the crop and neither pesticide or genetic modification will save it. So what, it might infest the crop once in a century. These unavoidable apocalyptic events might happen sometime. We should not take SOMETIMES occurring events to affect our decisions.

Take for example a situation:
Mayor: We should build a high rise building to accommodate people living in slums, which occupy large city area. The area saved can be used to build schools and hospitals.
Citizen: In every 10000 years, one earthquake hits the city. So, we should not build the high rise building because an earthquake might occur SOMETIME.

You know how dumb that citizen will sound!

B. If Selling Price increases, Profit will increase same for both types of farming, unless the changes in cost in Conventional farming are different from those in GM farming.

Where does it imply that selling price is the same? The first sentence says "modified feed corn" but B says "feed corn". How would I know that feed corn means modified and original

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2015, 20:32
kedusei wrote:
jai1902 wrote:
Of course, we know the OA and we also know the reasoning. Still let us see the logical flow of the argument.

For same yield,

Premise 1: Conventional Corn-- uses X kg of Pesticide but seed is less expensive.
Premise 2: GM Corn-- uses 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive.
Conclusion: Though 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive. So, No profit INCREASE.

Assumption: Profit = Selling Price - Total Cost (pesticide + seed)

Option D introduces a new information which states that 'less than X kg' is still very high than 'actually necessary'. So, if we accept the info provided by Option D, Total Cost will reduce if we use only 'necessary' qty of pesticide.

For those, who still find Option A and Option B convincing, read below:

A. (I am not very happy with Official explanation given in the book but there is still another big flaw)
Insects SOMETIMES might infest the crop and neither pesticide or genetic modification will save it. So what, it might infest the crop once in a century. These unavoidable apocalyptic events might happen sometime. We should not take SOMETIMES occurring events to affect our decisions.

Take for example a situation:
Mayor: We should build a high rise building to accommodate people living in slums, which occupy large city area. The area saved can be used to build schools and hospitals.
Citizen: In every 10000 years, one earthquake hits the city. So, we should not build the high rise building because an earthquake might occur SOMETIME.

You know how dumb that citizen will sound!

B. If Selling Price increases, Profit will increase same for both types of farming, unless the changes in cost in Conventional farming are different from those in GM farming.

Where does it imply that selling price is the same? The first sentence says "modified feed corn" but B says "feed corn". How would I know that feed corn means modified and original

Note that option (B) says:
"Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years"

The question is not trying to probe the difference in the selling price of original corn and modified corn. A steady or non-steady selling price in previous years will not help us decide whether original will give more profit or modified.

Had the question been: "Whether the farmers can receive a higher selling price for corn which uses less insecticide" or something similar, then it would have been relevant too our discussion of which corn will give more profit.
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2015, 21:12
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out
the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields and still got yields
comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less,
and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most
feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.
Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used
insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically
used on other crops
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide
than was actually necessary
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2015, 03:37
guhabhishek wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less, and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop

We have -

Cost of Seeds : Genetically Modified > Ordinary Seeds
Yield : Genetically Modified = Ordinary Seeds

guhabhishek wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields

Scientists have modified the seeds to be insect resistant still the farmers are using less insecticides ,it may be such that

1. Insecticides are not required at all

2. or a very insignificant amount might be required ( Since the seeds itself are resistant to the diseases)

Thus IMHO (D)

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2016, 01:01
ykaiim wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less, and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modifi cation are equally ineffective
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modifi ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profi table crop

Situation-
The yields from the insect resistant feed corn are same as the ones from the ordinary cotton.
GM Feed corn is expensive.
Cost of GM feed corn + Less insecticide cost > Cost of ordinary feed corn + More cost of Insecticide

Conclusion-
For most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Evaluation-

In order to conclude about the profit= SP-CP, we need information about SP but there is not any.We have no information about the selling price of the GM Feed corn vs ordinary feed corn. The argument must assume or forces us to assume that the SP for GM feed corn is equal to ordinary feed corn.

How do we increase profits ?(Note the yields are same from both types of corn feed)
1. Decrease cost of production.
2. Increase selling price

POE-

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective

This information is of no help. If there are such insects then they will affect both the crops equally.But this information does not help us to increase profits.

(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years

Past is dead and does not gurantee future. Even if the price were steady, that does not ensure that price will be steady now or in the future.We do not have any information about the price differentiation, if any, between the two types of the corn feed.

(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops

This affects the comparison equally.Same as option A does.So what if the insecticides are expensive, we are just instersted in profit comparison between the two types of corn feed and not between corn feed and other crops.

(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modifi ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary

If the farmers appplied more insecticide on the GM feed corn then there might be a way to reduce the cost of production and hence INCREASE profits.

Cost of GM feed corn + Less insecticide cost > Cost of ordinary feed corn + More cost of Insecticide

The option gives us a reason to suspect that there might be a way to increase profits.

A yes answer to option D will give us a reason that profits might be increase and may be the conclusion is wrong.
A no answer to option D will give us a reason that the situation is unlikely to change and the conclusion stands correct.

It is good to remind ourselves that all we need to do is to check-
1.The conclusion may be not true or is doubtful.A yes answer to option D would do exactly this.
2. The conclusion is true without doubt.

(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profi table crop

This information is immaterial as it directs the comparison towards other crops and not between the two types of feed corn.

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Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.

I hated every minute of training, but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.-Mohammad Ali

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically   [#permalink] 16 Mar 2016, 01:01

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