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# Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal

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Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2009, 05:26
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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 78
Page: 262

Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there.

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 22 May 2017, 04:06, edited 4 times in total.
Modified Underline
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2009, 05:57
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IMO D

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

which refers to sediments. The sediments cannot be consistent with the growth of industrial activity. out

(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings

where refers to sediments which are not a place. out

(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
its has no clear antecedent, perhaps Baltic Sea? can a sea have growth of industrial activity? out

(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
correct

(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
consistent seems to modify the previous clause. In addition there has no clear reference. It can refer to Baltic Sea but as It's already been said the sea has not growth of industrial activity.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2009, 06:00
rohansherry wrote:
38. Scientists have observed large concentrations of
heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the
growth of industrial activity there.
(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

D. present participle is correctly modifying the clause.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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rohansherry wrote:
38. Scientists have observed large concentrations of
heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the
growth of industrial activity there.

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2010, 10:05
A B C wrong because Baltic Sea sediments is incorrect. it has to be sediments from Baltic sea

Amongst D and E, D removes ambiguity of consistency by specifying findings
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2010, 10:09
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Baltic sea sediments is a wrong usage.It should be sediments from Baltic sea..

similar examples-I talked to the Indian soldier(Too Short)
I talked to the soldier from India(Better)

ural mountain ore ore from the ural mountain
Aegean sea salt salt from Aegean sea

Ergo A,B,C is not correct.

so now it is between D and E.
E is wrong because of "there"

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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2010, 10:31
D.

I am not sure if there's anything wrong with saying Baltic sea sediments.

I eliminated A, B, C and E for other reasons.

A. which (x)
b. where (x)
c. its (x)
E. consistent....... (x)
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 23:43
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mikeCoolBoy wrote:
IMO D

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

which refers to sediments. The sediments cannot be consistent with the growth of industrial activity. out

(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings

where refers to sediments which are not a place. out

(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
its has no clear antecedent, perhaps Baltic Sea? can a sea have growth of industrial activity? out

(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
correct

(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
consistent seems to modify the previous clause. In addition there has no clear reference. It can refer to Baltic Sea but as It's already been said the sea has not growth of industrial activity.

Thanx, But there is one thing here I want to know about:

"Baltic Sea sediments" VS "sediments from the Baltic Sea"

The second one is redundant where we have the first one in Answer Choices. am I right?
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2012, 00:40
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Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there.

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
First, I disagree with some previous posters. I believe the prepositional phrases should be disregarded and which refers to concentrations.

**EDIT (Oct 13, 2012): using are after which refers the reader to the most recent plural noun (sediments). In my original comment, I misspoke. The way the sentence is originally stated (and in option choice A), which are refers to sediments, but this isn't logical and it's understood that it wasn't the author's intent. The author intends to refer to the scientists' observation, which commands a singular verb (in other words, we need which is). Note that although the scientists observed concentrations (plural), their observation (singular) is what the relative clause beginning with which refers to.**

The phrase which are consistent with the growth doesn't match large concentrations. Growth cannot be consistent with concentrations (nor can it be consistent with sediments, centimeters, or deposits, for that matter). Also, Baltic Sea sediments isn't perfectly clear because Baltic Sea is a noun, not an adjective. In conversational speech, we often use nouns as adjectives, but it's not proper.

(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
Baltic Sea sediments is not a place, so where has no application here. Also, the ending is awkwardly worded. Findings are consistent with facts, not the other way around. Again, Baltic Sea sediments is improper.

(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
its has no logical referent. Again, Baltic Sea sediments is improper.

(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
This sounds all right.

(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
Scientists observing concentrations can't be consistent with growth.
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Last edited by NonYankee on 13 Oct 2012, 10:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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NonYankee wrote:
Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there.

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
First, I disagree with some previous posters. I believe the prepositional phrases should be disregarded and which refers to concentrations. The phrase which are consistent with the growth doesn't match large concentrations. Growth cannot be consistent with concentrations (nor can it be consistent with sediments, centimeters, or deposits, for that matter). Also, Baltic Sea sediments isn't perfectly clear because Baltic Sea is a noun, not an adjective. In conversational speech, we often use nouns as adjectives, but it's not proper.

(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
Baltic Sea sediments is not a place, so where has no application here. Also, the ending is awkwardly worded. Findings are consistent with facts, not the other way around. Again, Baltic Sea sediments is improper.

(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
its has no logical referent. Again, Baltic Sea sediments is improper.

(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
This sounds all right.

(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
Scientists observing concentrations can't be consistent with growth.

In answer D. may you explain why "findings",a noun, can go together with "consistent", an adj, without "be". Thanks
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 08:51
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This is a good modifier question: You may view video solution below. This contains detailed explanation of why original choice is wrong and why other incorrect choices are incorrect.

solo1234 wrote:
In answer D. may you explain why "findings",a noun, can go together with "consistent", an adj, without "be". Thanks

You ask a very good question about the correct answer choice. It is a very good practice to thoroughly review the structure of the correct answer choice. The correct answer choice in this case utilizes a modifier that is called as Noun + Noun Modifier. Here "findings" is the noun part and "consistent with..." is the noun modifier of this noun. I suggest you review the article here for more details on this modifier. It would present a lot more clarity.

Hope this helps.

Regards,

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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2013, 08:34
Skag55 wrote:
I'm surprised that nobody's bothered by the fact that the question doesn't follow the posting rules. Can a moderator please underline the correct part?

Hi Skag55,

I , as a Moderator, sincerely apologize the bad from our side. I have underlined the necessary part of the sentence. Please check out and attempt the question.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2014, 07:49
Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there.
(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

Hey everyone, the OA is D, which clearly does not have any issues. My question is about E. How do we know that "consistent with the growth of industrial activity there" modifies something inaccurately? Essentially, I can't seem to identify why this modifier can't modify Baltic Sea or if it does in the first place!. Some responses about this question have said it modifies the scientists observations, but using the noun modifier touch rule, that seems implausible.

Is there a way to systematically ascertain what a modifier modifies when it is at the end of a sentence? When modifiers are at the beginning of the sentence it is much easier to see what they modify, I wonder if there is a way to do that here. Thank you!!
I'm taking the gmat tomorrow, so I probably should know this by now....

Topic is discussed here : scientists-have-observed-large-concentrations-of-heavy-metal-83015.html#p622120

Last edited by WoundedTiger on 13 Jun 2014, 11:18, edited 4 times in total.
Topic name not there and sentence not underlined
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2014, 10:54
Hi,

IMO in the option "E" the phrase consistent with the growth of industrial activity there is modifying Scientists..
Hence eliminate this option.

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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2014, 11:04
Option A : which is the problem.
Option B : Where refers to Baltic Sea Sediments which is incorrect. Growth didn't happen in Sediments
Option C : Its does not have an antecedent.
Option D : Perfect
Option E : the phrase consistent with the growth of industrial activity there is modifying Scientists..

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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2014, 11:16
smalluser wrote:
Thank you!

What was your thought process, I'm curious.

Posted from my mobile device

There is another problem with E..

Before that in Option D "Findings (noun) consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area (Noun modifier).

This construction correctly of "Noun+Noun modfier " modifies observations of the scientists

In option E, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

is just a modifier phrase and is again modifying "observations", which is another noun in the sentence. In GMAT a noun modifier should be as close as possible to the noun modified where as a modifier modifying a verb need not be as close to the verb being modified.

Thus E is incorrect.

Before posting it is worthwhile to check if the questions have been discovered. GMATCLUB has been around for a long time and you can be rest assured that there will be a very very slim chance of a OG question not discussed on this site.

Use search option and save time.

Topic is discussed here : http://gmatclub.com/forum/scientists-ha ... ml#p622120
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2014, 15:41
egmat wrote:
This is a good modifier question: You may view video solution below. This contains detailed explanation of why original choice is wrong and why other incorrect choices are incorrect.

solo1234 wrote:
In answer D. may you explain why "findings",a noun, can go together with "consistent", an adj, without "be". Thanks

You ask a very good question about the correct answer choice. It is a very good practice to thoroughly review the structure of the correct answer choice. The correct answer choice in this case utilizes a modifier that is called as Noun + Noun Modifier. Here "findings" is the noun part and "consistent with..." is the noun modifier of this noun. I suggest you review the article here for more details on this modifier. It would present a lot more clarity.

Hope this helps.

Regards,

Payal

it is difficult for me to understand why B is wrong?
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2014, 21:33
The easiest way to eliminate B is that where is used to modify a place. Baltic Sea sediments is not a place; it is a thing (in lack of better word).

The way where is used in this sentence, it is a relative pronoun. The relative pronouns have many characteristics that are tested on GMAT. For example, the relative pronouns that and which cannot modify people and many other things.

p.s. These have been discussed in detail in our book. If you can PM me your mail id, I can send the corresponding section to you.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2014, 07:46
rohansherry wrote:
38. Scientists have observed large concentrations of
heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the
growth of industrial activity there.

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

A- WRONG MEANING - USE OF WHICH
B- WRONG MEANING- USE OF WHERE
C- WRONG USAGE OF ITS
d- CORRECT - BEST IN ALL
E- WRONG MEANINGS- NO " FINDINGS" MENTIONED.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2015, 03:29
rohansherry wrote:
38. Scientists have observed large concentrations of
heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the
growth of industrial activity there.

(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

Fairly simple one.

A - 'which' refers to sediments. Sediments can not be consistent with growth of industrial activity
B - 'where' can not refer to 'sediments'
C - no antecedent for 'its'
D - IMO right! 'findings' rightly sums up the scientists observations
E - Not clear what is 'consistent with the growth of industrial activity there'.
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Re: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal   [#permalink] 04 Jan 2015, 03:29

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