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# Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of

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20 Mar 2012, 11:20
It seems A to me too.......others are out of scope i guess
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29 Mar 2012, 05:32
could not decide between A and C .. finally using negation end up choosing A, which seems incorrect as per official answer. Could someone explain with more convincing logic why C not A ??
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2012, 05:35
+1 A

C seems more an inference.
You must assume that there is certain control of substance P in order to say later that the body has lost control of it. A is the answer.
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12 Jul 2012, 13:16
i selected C by POE
had doubts over A tried negation technique and it did not allowed me to disprove the conclusion. the conclusion still held that even with full control over P the pain can go haywire if not reset.
dont know if that makes any sense
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18 Jul 2012, 11:01
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lack of deep sleep --(causes)--> not "resetting" the substace P mechanism --(causes)--> fibromyalgia/pain

The underlying Assumption, then is simply:

(nothing else) --(causes)--> the same effects.

A classic Weakener would then be "[some other factor other than lack of sleep] is in fact the primary cause

Choice (C) says: Deep sleep is necessary, meaning that without it, there will be problems. If we negate this, and find that deep sleep isn't necessary, then it's entirely possible that other factors could be the culprits, not the lack of deep sleep.
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18 Jul 2012, 12:06
a. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
This sounds like another piece of premise, the assumption much contain something which should airtight the conclusion,in which we need to bring the consequences of the problem.
b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
Correct.
"......If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control."
stats an assumption that the mechanism is controllable but need utmost care.
c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
sounds more like a conclusion.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
is that anywhere connected?
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.[/quote]
irrelevant

since (B) isn't the OA, i would like to request the experts to guide us.
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18 Jul 2012, 16:42
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I'll start off by simplifying the argument:

1. F (Fibromyalgia) causes wide body pain.
2. F is caused by lack of deep sleep

The assumption is, without deep sleep, the body breaks down and the person suffers constant pain or F. Therefore the only way the conclusion holds true is if deep sleep is necessary to avoid F. Or, as answer (C) has it:

(C) Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
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28 Jul 2012, 22:07
I go with A. I thought C was no were near as it says "Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system." . For me this is out of scope.
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12 Aug 2012, 11:02
So the accurate answer is C or A ?
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07 Oct 2013, 18:58
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16 Feb 2014, 00:38
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I'll start off by simplifying the argument:

1. F (Fibromyalgia) causes wide body pain.
2. F is caused by lack of deep sleep

The assumption is, without deep sleep, the body breaks down and the person suffers constant pain or F. Therefore the only way the conclusion holds true is if deep sleep is necessary to avoid F. Or, as answer (C) has it:

(C) Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.

If we go by your post then argument 2 states
F is caused by lack of X

So how can the assumption be
Lack of X causes F

Isn't it already stated in the argument. Merely restating the argument doesn't count as an assumption. This is an inference from the passage.
Assumption must be something that is not stated in the passage.
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14 Jun 2014, 01:38
I disagree with C and I agree with others that have noted this question is poorly written.

It doesn't know if it wants to be an inference, strengthen or assumption question.

Not really impressed with the quality of the GMAT Club verbal questions. The quant stuff is pretty good. Easier to write quant questions I guess.
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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2014, 16:26
Can any one help me to find the relationship between "Deep Sleep" and "Fibromyalgia" ?
according to the passage : depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep. i understood that "depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency " can cause "Fibromyalgia". then what about the DEEP SLEEP part ? how to understand that the lack of sleep causes fibromyalgia ?

Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?

a. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.
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20 Jun 2014, 11:34
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I'm with you guys - I don't like C for the answer because it just restates an existing premise (lack of deep sleep interferes with nervous system reset of Neuro P). Option A seems viable to me as an assumption.

I lay out the argument logically as follows:

Depression/Anxiety/Serotonin Def. --> No Deep Sleep --> No reset of Neuro P --> Fibro

The lack of reset of Neuro P seems to be the ultimate cause of Fibro. In order to believe the argument that Depression (etc.) lead to Fibro through lack of sleep then I have to believe that the body has no other means for resetting the Neuro P other than deep sleep. Option A states that the body has limited control of Neuro P, so the argument logic would hold.

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20 Jun 2014, 11:36
shagalo wrote:
Can any one help me to find the relationship between "Deep Sleep" and "Fibromyalgia" ?
according to the passage : depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep. i understood that "depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency " can cause "Fibromyalgia". then what about the DEEP SLEEP part ? how to understand that the lack of sleep causes fibromyalgia ?

Can you see through the logic string below how lack of deep sleep causes Fibro?

Depression/Anxiety/Serotonin Def. --> No Deep Sleep --> No reset of Neuro P --> Fibro

It's the lack of deep sleep that doesn't allow for the reset of neuro P, leading to Fibro...

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20 Sep 2014, 01:04
rlevochkin wrote:
C is a premise already stated the stem, it is more of a conclusion than an assumption. A is much better. Because negating A, we get that the body would have an unlimited control of the subtance P or whatever. Then the body would reset the process regardless and deep sleep would not be an issue at stake. The passage suggests that a body's control over substance P is limited toa deep sleep. Am I not right?

C is not stated in the premise. question ask us the cause of the disease & A is not relevant.
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04 Oct 2014, 03:22
C it is .. makes sense.Other options are not upto mark
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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2015, 05:05
Why is C not out of scope? How does assuming that deep sleep helps the ENTIRE nervous system, help us prove that F is caused by depression / lack of sleep / inability to reset the effects of substance P?
Deep sleep may be helpful for preventing disease F, but that does not mean the author assumes that deep sleep helps in other functions of the nervous system too.

Even if the author IGNORES the ASSUMPTION that deep sleep is necessary for the whole nervous system, it doesn't mean he disagrees that deep sleep is required for reseting the effects of substance P.

Also would it not be incorrect to assume that these functions belong to the nervous system without the passage suggesting so?
I mean aren't we supposed to not use prior subject knowledge in GMAT CR questions?
I would like to know whether my thinking is correct in this regard specifically.

KyleWiddison's justification of A seems logical to me.
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28 Jan 2015, 21:14
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Why is C not out of scope? How does assuming that deep sleep helps the ENTIRE nervous system, help us prove that F is caused by depression / lack of sleep / inability to reset the effects of substance P?
Deep sleep may be helpful for preventing disease F, but that does not mean the author assumes that deep sleep helps in other functions of the nervous system too.

Even if the author IGNORES the ASSUMPTION that deep sleep is necessary for the whole nervous system, it doesn't mean he disagrees that deep sleep is required for reseting the effects of substance P.

Also would it not be incorrect to assume that these functions belong to the nervous system without the passage suggesting so?
I mean aren't we supposed to not use prior subject knowledge in GMAT CR questions?
I would like to know whether my thinking is correct in this regard specifically.

KyleWiddison's justification of A seems logical to me.

As stated before, I don't like C on this one. I think you have a valid argument to say that it is out of scope because we don't require the other parts of the nervous system to be benefitted, we just need the connection to neuro P. I agree with your caution about bringing in outside knowledge.

After a question like this, it's nice to go back to OG questions to see how the assumptions fit nicely between premises and the conclusion.

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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2016, 07:52
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of   [#permalink] 01 Mar 2016, 07:52

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