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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the

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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.


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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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I would go with [D].

A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument.[The second is not an objection against a position but an observation in support of the position]
B. The first is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes[This is not true]; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that position.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that explanation[Second finding doesn't support the first explanation, it provides an alternate explanation].
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding on which that challenge is based.[Correct Answer]
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends[Author doesnt defend this explanation]; the second is a finding that has been used to challenge that explanation.

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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Izvos wrote:
IMO E.

From the structure of the argument, it is clear that 1st boldface is an evidence and 2nd boldface is a conclusion.
With this information we are left with two choices, C & E.
The 1st boldface implies that, if number of scientists concerned who produced quality work is high, then fewer scientists entered field at an above normal age.
It simply means, there is no relation btw creative scientists abv age of 40 and age.
if a scientist enters their field late and yet produce quality work, then aging does not hamper creativity(as stated by 2nd premise) but they can do so because they have been in their field for long time (the conclusion is the explanation).

Only E fits this logic.



You have just copied this answer from another website and posted here, without event bothering that the original answer was for a different question.

Below is the original link from where you have copied

http://www.beatthegmat.com/scientists-t ... 60644.html
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2013, 04:58
abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that a disproportionately large number of the scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that they generally have spent
too long in a given field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument.
B. The first is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that position.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that explanation.
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding on which that challenge is based.
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends; the second is a finding that has been used to challenge that explanation.

Kindly justify your answers..


Boldface questions require you to understand the structure of the argument. Let's try to do that:
First boldface: A position/explanation/claim that the argument opposes.
Second boldface: A finding/evidence that supports the position that the argument defends.
The position that the argument defends: the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that they generally have spent too long in their field.

Let’s look at the first halves of the options:
Option E is out because the first boldface is not defended by the argument.

Now let’s look at the second halves of the remaining choices:
Option A is out because the second boldface is not an objection raised against the position that the argument defends.
In B, ‘that position’ refers to the position mentioned in the first half of the choice, which is the position that the argument opposes. But the second boldface opposes and not supports this position. So B is also out.
In C, the second boldface is not a finding used to support ‘that’ explanation (that ageing is the reason for loss of creative capacity). C can also be eliminated.
Thus, D is the right answer. According to D, the first is an explanation the argument challenges (ageing is the reason for loss of creative capacity) and the second is a finding on which this challenge is based (a disproportionately large number of the
scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty entered their field at an older age than usual).

Hope this is clear now. :)

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim
B)The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the agrument; the second is that position
C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation
D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors
E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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This is a bold face argument type so your first task is to find the conclusion and premise.

the conclusion of the argument is "the real reason why scientists over forty.. is that they have spent too long in their field.:

This is supported by the fact that the scientists who are creative over forty have spent less time in the field.

therefore the second bold phrase is the author's conclusion and the first bolded phrase is the premise (or reason given for the conclusion)

then you look to the answer choices
TARGET730 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claimthe accuracy of the claim is not called into question
B)The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the agrument; the second is that positionthe premise supports the argument
C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanationthe argument does not question the point
D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favorsthe premise supports the conclusion, it does not challenge it
E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanationthis is correct on both points although the answer choice calls it an explanation instead of a conclusion.

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2014, 16:58
BeckyRobinsonTPR wrote:
This is a bold face argument type so your first task is to find the conclusion and premise.

the conclusion of the argument is "the real reason why scientists over forty.. is that they have spent too long in their field.:

This is supported by the fact that the scientists who are creative over forty have spent less time in the field.

therefore the second bold phrase is the author's conclusion and the first bolded phrase is the premise (or reason given for the conclusion)

then you look to the answer choices
TARGET730 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claimthe accuracy of the claim is not called into question
B)The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the agrument; the second is that positionthe premise supports the argument
C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanationthe argument does not question the point
D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favorsthe premise supports the conclusion, it does not challenge it
E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanationthis is correct on both points although the answer choice calls it an explanation instead of a conclusion.


Hi Becky, can't we argue that A can also pass? Isn't the accuracy inherently being challenged by the simple fact that two positions are present? This seem's to be a trouble area for me?

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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can't we argue that A can also pass? Isn't the accuracy inherently being challenged by the simple fact that two positions are present? This seem's to be a trouble area for me?


Hi Russ9

Though your doubt is addressed to Becky, I just thought to share my two cents :)

Before we check whether the accuracy has been challenged, let me ask you one thing: Do you think that the first is a claim?

A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim

"Studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual."

Passage says that 'studies show xyz.' Thus, it simply states a fact. Does the argument challenges the accuracy of this fact?

No! In fact, it is used in support of the explanation that argument favors (BF2). The accuracy of the first explanation has been challenged. It suggests ageing is the cause for loss of creativity; however, argument contradicts this explanation and states 'spending too long in the field' is the real cause.

It's very important to be in author's shoes always so rather seeing these as two contradictory positions, you should see them as position countered by the argument and position taken by the argument.

As a thumb rule, you should always begin boldface questions by segregating all the statements into facts and opinions. This will help you avoid some common traps as one tested in this question.

For this, read each statement and classify it as a fact or an opinion as follow:

Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. - It's a Fact.

It is commonly thoughtthat this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity.
This explains the reason for loss of creativity after 40.

BF1:

However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual.

This statement begins with a contrast marker so we can expect the flow of the passage to change. As studies show this information, the statement presents another fact.


Thus we know, that BF1 is a FACT and not a claim.


Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years,

BF2:

the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field.

It presents the explanation that argument supports. Note: This explanation has been drawn in contradiction to the first explanation.


Now look at option A

A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim

BF1 is not a claim; it's a fact. The accuracy of the fact is not at issue in the argument, in fact this fact has been used to support the explanation supported by the argument; second is based on BF1, the fact.

Hope this helps! :-D

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 04:39
Maggie you should mention where you are struck at , accordingly one can help !
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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E for me too.

Explanation:
Sentence 1 -Premise - Scientists typically do most of their creative work before the age of 40
Sentence 2 - Counter Premise - Studies show (EVIDENCE): (BOLD) scientists who produce their creative work beyond the age of 40 entered the field at an older age
Sentence 3 - Conclusion (EXPLANATION/claim)- Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that (BS) scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field.

Answer is E because the fist boldface is EVIDENCE and the argument favours this evidence, and second boldface is an Explanation to the first boldface

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 16:12
maggie27 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim
B)The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the agrument; the second is that position
C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation
D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors
E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation

Need help!
OA to follow


Here is how I approached it:

After reading the passage, I broke the answer choices into two parts. "The first..." and "the second..."

Then I applied the process of elimination to rule out the obviously wrong choices:
A) Ruled out because the first statement is not a claim, it is a fact.
B) Ruled out because again, the statement is a fact, not a claim or position or objection. They are just telling you something which is data driven.

I keep the next three after reading only up to "The first is evidence..."

Now I move further into answer choices C, D, E.
Now the difference between (C & D) vs. E requires you to answer: does the second bold statement agree with or disagree with the first bold statement?

Because I think that the second statement would agree with the first statement, I chose E.

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2014, 09:02
abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on
the basis of that claim.
(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is
that position.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is that explanation.
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that
explanation.


:wave: :wave: :wave: :wave: Can someone post an explanation; explaining how all wrong answers were eliminated?

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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dmmk wrote:
abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on
the basis of that claim.
(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is
that position.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is that explanation.
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that
explanation.


:wave: :wave: :wave: :wave: Can someone post an explanation; explaining how all wrong answers were eliminated?


The 1st boldface is the premise supporting the main conclusion of the argument.
The 2nd boldface is the main conclusion based on that premise.

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on
the basis of that claim. The first is not a claim and also its accuracy is not mentioned further in the argument.
(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is
that position. The first part of this answer choice is opposite of the function of the first boldface.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is that explanation. The explanation is of argument favor not challenge.
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is a competing explanation that the argument favors. The explanation is of argument favor not challenge.
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that
explanation
. This is correct.

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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dmmk wrote:
abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on
the basis of that claim.
(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is
that position.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is that explanation.
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that
explanation.


:wave: :wave: :wave: :wave: Can someone post an explanation; explaining how all wrong answers were eliminated?


You can find solution here https://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=2791

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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The solution is from E gmat. Only main part is given here

the author’s conclusion here is that aging is not responsible for a loss of creativity in scientists. Rather, the reason for their loss of creativity is that they have spent too long working in their field. This part is the author’s conclusion. The author directly contradicts the common belief by saying that ‘the real reason’ is not the commonly believed one.

Option A bad B can be eliminated easily. Lets get reason for eliminating C and D

C- the first is evidence that supports the author’s conclusion, not the conclusion that the author challenges.
Also, the second is the author’s explanation, not the explanation that the author challenges.
D- First part can be eliminated for the reason stated in C. Second part is correct
E- Correct Answer

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2014, 10:40
Brilliant solution by egmat.

A. THE FIRST IS A CLAIM, THE ACCURACY OF WHICH IS AT ISSUE IN THE ARGUMENT; THE SECOND IS A CONCLUSION DRAWN ON THE BASIS OF THAT CLAIM. THIS OPTION IS INCORRECT.LET’S UNDERSTAND THIS.FIRST OF ALL, THE FIRST STATEMENT IS A FACT, NOT A CLAIM. ALSO, THE ARGUMENT DOES NOT CHALLENGE THE ACCURACY OF THIS STATEMENT. THIS STATEMENT SUPPORTS THE AUTHOR’S CONCLUSION.THE SECOND HALF OF THIS STATEMENT IS ALSO INCORRECT SINCE IT IDENTIFIES BF2 AS A CONCLUSION. BF2 IS PART OF THE AUTHOR’S CONCLUSION, NOT THE ENTIRE CONCLUSION.
B. The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position. This option is incorrect.First of all, BF1 cannot be an objection to the author’s position, since the author’s position is based on BF1.Second, “position defended in the argument means” could mean a conclusion. However, Bf2 is not a conclusion; it is only a part of a conclusion.
C. The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation. This option is incorrect.Let’s see why. ‘The first is evidence’—this part is correct. But the first is evidence that supports the author’s conclusion, not the conclusion that the author challenges.Also, the second is the author’s explanation, not the explanation that the author challenges.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors. This choice is also incorrect.The first part of this choice is the same as the first part of choice C, and is incorrect for the same reasons.In this option, the second half has no error. BF2 is indeed a competing explanation that the argument favors. So, the only error in this choice is the part that says that BF1 supports the explanation that the author challenges.
E. The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation. This is the correct answer. The first is evidence since it is a fact. This choice correctly says that BF1 supports the explanation that the author favors. The second half is also correct in saying that BF2 is the explanation favored by the author.

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2014, 16:57
The trick here is to keep an eye on the keywords on which GMAT Test makers often play to create attractive but inconsistent answer choices. In case of Option D, it is true that BF1 is an evidence, however it in no way supports an explanation that the argument challenges. On the contrary, it is used to help arrive at the author's claim.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

Thus, we can straight away eliminate A, and B for not correctly classifying BF1 as evidence or a fact (interchangeable). And then, on closer inspection, eliminate C and D as both are inconsistent owing to the presence of "support an explanation that the argument challenges".

Thus, we are left only with option E, which is the right answer!

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2015, 11:10
We have to look for an answer that says argument favors the BF#1, in other words BF#1 and argument are on the same side. That leaves us with option (E) only!

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2015, 09:15
dmmk wrote:
Can someone post an explanation; explaining how all wrong answers were eliminated?


The argument is challenging the common thought that aging is the reason for the loss of creativity with scientists above 40.

The studies show that a higher percentage of scientists, who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, entered their field at an older age than the usual. This is a fact as it is from the studies.

At the end, the argument is favoring an explanation for why scientist above 40 rarely produce creative work. This explanation is that they have spent too long in their field.

Now the options:

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; [The accuracy of the first bold statement was never questioned. So, wrong.] the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.
(B) The first is an objection [The first is not an objection. It is an evidence found from studies. So, wrong.] that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation. [The argument is not challenging the second bold statement. It is favoring that explanation. So, wrong.]
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.[The argument is not challenging the second bold statement. It is favoring that explanation. So, wrong.]
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation. [The argument is favoring the second statement which is explaining why scientist above 40 rarely produce creative work. So, this is correct answer.]

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2015, 09:15

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