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Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug

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Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 04:49
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Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

(A) away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
(B) away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
(C) away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
(D) away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
(E) away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others


SC24751.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION

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New post 02 May 2019, 14:39
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Hello Everyone!

While this may look like an incredibly complicated question to answer, we think you can tackle it pretty quickly if you can identify what type of question it is: a LIST question! To begin, let's take a quick scan over the options and highlight any major differences in orange:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

After a quick scan, there are a few key differences we can focus on here:

1. repressing / repression of / repress (Parallelism)
2. , common / , and common / ; common (Punctuation & Lists)
3. , or empathy / , empathy / , an empathy / , to empathize (Parallelism & Punctuation)
4. others, / others; / others (Punctuation & Lists)


There is a lot here, so let's focus on #1 on our list: Parallelism. This should be a pretty easy way to eliminate a couple wrong choices quickly. To figure out what the word repressing/repression/repress is paired with, we need to look to the non-underlined portion of the sentence:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

We need to keep "being carried away" the way it is because it's not underlined, and eliminate the options that don't use parallel structure:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use an -ing word to make them parallel to "being carried away."

Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let's focus on the fact that this is a LIST question. If we look carefully, we see that this isn't just any old list - it's a COMPOUND LIST:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A compound list is a type of list where each item includes commas within it, which makes figuring out which items go together incredibly difficult. For compound sentences, you should separate each item with a semicolon (;), rather than just a comma. That way, it's clearer to readers what goes with what.

Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate those that don't:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
This is INCORRECT because there should be a semicolon separating each item instead of just a comma. For this sentence, there needs to be semicolons before "common" and after "others" to properly break up the list.

C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
This is INCORRECT because it doesn't separate mindfulness from common humanity with a semicolon like it needs to. It does separate common humanity from self-kindness, but that's not enough to make this correct.

D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
This is CORRECT! It uses semicolons to properly separate each item, allowing the commas inside each item to distinguish that they are defining each term and are not more list items.

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! It uses parallel structure and proper punctuation for a compound list.


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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 04:52
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Bunuel wrote:
Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others


SC24751.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION


There are two uses of semi-colon
1. Used to connect to related Independent clauses. This is the most commonly used
IC; IC
2. Used to connect parallel items, when a comma is already used as part of a list(to make the sentence clearer).
To understand the usage: see this https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/gramm ... emicolons/

---Kudos if my post helps you---
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Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 09 Jul 2019, 20:51
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Bunuel wrote:
Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others


SC24751.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION


An adept understanding of the structural construction of sentences can help in solving this seemingly jumble of modifiers, list parallelism, and punctuations. This problem is about a list of three nouns namely mindfulness, humanity, and self-kindness followed by their respective modifiers.

The algorithm for doing this problem may start with:

1. 'without being carried away' in the non-underlined part indicates that the second arm of that phrase should have another 'ing' form after the conjunction 'or'. We can safely remove B and E on this count.

2. There is no need to put a comma before 'or' in C since it might give a wrong feeling that what follows 'or' could be another item in the list. In addition, a comma is not required when only two items are involved in a given list.

3. Between A and D: In A, "empathy with the suffering of others" is just a modifier and we do not join a modifier with its modifyee by a conjunction, but only by a comma.

Therefore, D is the answer.
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Originally posted by daagh on 26 Apr 2019, 04:50.
Last edited by daagh on 09 Jul 2019, 20:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 12:37
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kshitijgarg wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
In option D, Modifiers of a parallel are connected with semicolon. is it the right construction?
i haven't seen this before. My understanding was modifiers in the parallel structure are connected with a comma and the last item with comma+and (,and).

Regards,
Kshitij Garg

There are two ways we can use a semicolon. First, we can use it to separate independent clauses. That's the usage we see most often.

But we can also use semi-colons to separate elements in a list when there are commas within those elements. For example:

    "During his exotic vacation in the tri-state area, Mike visited tourist hotspots such as Trenton, New Jersey; Rochester, New York; and Hamden, Connecticut."

Notice that if I'd separated the cities with commas, it would have been very difficult for the reader to tell when one element ended and the next began.

Same usage here. Here's the relevant portion of (D):

Quote:
"...mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others; and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering;..."

Notice there are three elements in this list and that each element contains a comma setting off a modifier within it:

    (1) mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them
    (2) common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others
    (3) and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering

Again, if we separated the elements with commas, it would be very difficult to tell where one ended and the next began.

A similar official example can be found here, and an excessive rant about GMAT punctuation can be found in this video.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 04:51
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Bunuel wrote:
Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others


SC24751.01
OG2020 NEW QUESTION


To answer this question, we require to find parallel items,

The parallel items are
mindfulness, ...A
common humanity...B
self-kindness...C

Also, the phrases, x, y and z after each of the parallel items are noun modifier describing about that item,,,
so the correct way is

Self-compassion is made up of A, x.....; B, y.... ; and C, z....
away or repressing them are parallel to each other and require or in between.

D
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 08:35
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Hi - can you please explain the ruole around this - We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use an -ing word to make them parallel to "being carried away."


Anytime you encounter a parallel marker, such as "or," "and," or "but," the marker will be used to connect similar forms. For example:

    "When Tim gave dog food to his daughter for a snack, Maria couldn't tell if he was being a jerk or showing signs of extreme sleep deprivation."

In this case, because we have VERB-ing after the parallel marker "or," it's likely that we'll see VERB-ing earlier in the sentence to pair with the later instance, so "being" is parallel to "showing." Both VERB-ing words serve as adjectives describing poor Tim.

Now, keep in mind that parallelism isn't about simply seeking out elements that look the same. I can enjoy swimming and tennis. Here, "swimming" and "tennis," though they don't look alike, are both nouns, and so can be logically parallel to one another. So that's the real test: is the parallel marker connecting two elements that are playing the same role in the sentence?

In (B), we have the following: "the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away, or repression." In this case, "being" is functioning like an adverb, describing the action "to manage." "Repression," on the other hand, is functioning as a noun, and so cannot be parallel to an adverb. (B) is out.

Now take a look at (E): "the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repress them." Again, "being" is functioning as an adverb, not now "repress" is functioning as a verb. Not parallel, so (E) is out.

In the OA, we have "the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried or repressing them..." Now "being" and "repressing" are both offering context for how "to manage thoughts." The forms are logically parallel, so this works.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2019, 03:13
in a compound list, in which there are many items and in which a smaller list is embedded, we need only 2 vehicles to solve.

a list, smaller or bigger needs conjunction"or" or "and" before the last item. this point is important for us to realize mechanical structural errors. using this conjuction helps us eliminate 2 or 3 choices.

but gmat test logic/meaning error and,so, we need to use our common sense of logic. using meaning analysis, we realize the Modifiers. these modifiers need not to be parallel to items. in hard question, modifiers are appositive, which explain some items. presence of appositive makes hard problems because we do not know which phrases are items and which phrases are modifiers. it is lucky that using the 1st vehicle above, we eliminate some choices and now we face only 2 or 3 choices.

using logic to realize the modifiers is key to this List problem and to all other sc problems.

applying the 2 vehicles above, I called, realizing SMALL LIST AND MODIFIER.

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried //away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,// and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others


frist, we need something parallel to "being carried away". only choices A, C and D meet this requirement. we use meaning analysis to do this step.

in choice C, we see semi collon after "suffering of others". so, before semi collong is a small list. this small list need "or" or "and" before the last item. there is no "or" or "and" before "empathy". this is wrong mechanically structurally.

only choice A and D left.

now we use logic sense to realize 3 modifiers . we realize "or" in choice A is strange because there is no "or" after first item, "mindfulness" and last item "self kindness". so, "or" in choice A is wrong. if we want to use "or', we need 3 "or" for 3 items.

choice D is right.
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New post 17 May 2019, 20:53
Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, --> not parallel: mindfulness ; common humanity ; and self-kindness
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, --> same as A
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;--> same as A
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others; --> correct: parallel: mindfulness ; common humanity ; and self-kindness
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others--> same as A
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New post 04 Jun 2019, 19:35
Hi GMATNinja,
In option D, Modifiers of a parallel are connected with semicolon. is it the right construction?
i haven't seen this before. My understanding was modifiers in the parallel structure are connected with a comma and the last item with comma+and (,and).

Regards,
Kshitij Garg
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2019, 11:11
GMATNinja wrote:
kshitijgarg wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
In option D, Modifiers of a parallel are connected with semicolon. is it the right construction?
i haven't seen this before. My understanding was modifiers in the parallel structure are connected with a comma and the last item with comma+and (,and).

Regards,
Kshitij Garg

There are two ways we can use a semicolon. First, we can use it to separate independent clauses. That's the usage we see most often.

But we can also use semi-colons to separate elements in a list when there are commas within those elements. For example:

    "During his exotic vacation in the tri-state area, Mike visited tourist hotspots such as Trenton, New Jersey; Rochester, New York; and Hamden, Connecticut."

Notice that if I'd separated the cities with commas, it would have been very difficult for the reader to tell when one element ended and the next began.

Same usage here. Here's the relevant portion of (D):

Quote:
"...mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others; and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering;..."

Notice there are three elements in this list and that each element contains a comma setting off a modifier within it:

    (1) mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them
    (2) common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others
    (3) and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering

Again, if we separated the elements with commas, it would be very difficult to tell where one ended and the next began.

A similar official example can be found here, and an excessive rant about GMAT punctuation can be found in this video.

I hope that helps!



Thank you for a detailed explanation. It makes a lot of sense now.
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New post 05 Jul 2019, 09:06
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

While this may look like an incredibly complicated question to answer, we think you can tackle it pretty quickly if you can identify what type of question it is: a LIST question! To begin, let's take a quick scan over the options and highlight any major differences in orange:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

After a quick scan, there are a few key differences we can focus on here:

1. repressing / repression of / repress (Parallelism)
2. , common / , and common / ; common (Punctuation & Lists)
3. , or empathy / , empathy / , an empathy / , to empathize (Parallelism & Punctuation)
4. others, / others; / others (Punctuation & Lists)


There is a lot here, so let's focus on #1 on our list: Parallelism. This should be a pretty easy way to eliminate a couple wrong choices quickly. To figure out what the word repressing/repression/repress is paired with, we need to look to the non-underlined portion of the sentence:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

We need to keep "being carried away" the way it is because it's not underlined, and eliminate the options that don't use parallel structure:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use an -ing word to make them parallel to "being carried away."

Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let's focus on the fact that this is a LIST question. If we look carefully, we see that this isn't just any old list - it's a COMPOUND LIST:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A compound list is a type of list where each item includes commas within it, which makes figuring out which items go together incredibly difficult. For compound sentences, you should separate each item with a semicolon (;), rather than just a comma. That way, it's clearer to readers what goes with what.

Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate those that don't:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
This is INCORRECT because there should be a semicolon separating each item instead of just a comma. For this sentence, there needs to be semicolons before "common" and after "others" to properly break up the list.

C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
This is INCORRECT because it doesn't separate mindfulness from common humanity with a semicolon like it needs to. It does separate common humanity from self-kindness, but that's not enough to make this correct.

D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
This is CORRECT! It uses semicolons to properly separate each item, allowing the commas inside each item to distinguish that they are defining each term and are not more list items.

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! It uses parallel structure and proper punctuation for a compound list.


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.


How can one spot if something is a compound list or a normal list? Such as in this example?
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 14:10
jamalabdullah100 wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

While this may look like an incredibly complicated question to answer, we think you can tackle it pretty quickly if you can identify what type of question it is: a LIST question! To begin, let's take a quick scan over the options and highlight any major differences in orange:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

After a quick scan, there are a few key differences we can focus on here:

1. repressing / repression of / repress (Parallelism)
2. , common / , and common / ; common (Punctuation & Lists)
3. , or empathy / , empathy / , an empathy / , to empathize (Parallelism & Punctuation)
4. others, / others; / others (Punctuation & Lists)


There is a lot here, so let's focus on #1 on our list: Parallelism. This should be a pretty easy way to eliminate a couple wrong choices quickly. To figure out what the word repressing/repression/repress is paired with, we need to look to the non-underlined portion of the sentence:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

We need to keep "being carried away" the way it is because it's not underlined, and eliminate the options that don't use parallel structure:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use an -ing word to make them parallel to "being carried away."

Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let's focus on the fact that this is a LIST question. If we look carefully, we see that this isn't just any old list - it's a COMPOUND LIST:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A compound list is a type of list where each item includes commas within it, which makes figuring out which items go together incredibly difficult. For compound sentences, you should separate each item with a semicolon (;), rather than just a comma. That way, it's clearer to readers what goes with what.

Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate those that don't:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
This is INCORRECT because there should be a semicolon separating each item instead of just a comma. For this sentence, there needs to be semicolons before "common" and after "others" to properly break up the list.

C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
This is INCORRECT because it doesn't separate mindfulness from common humanity with a semicolon like it needs to. It does separate common humanity from self-kindness, but that's not enough to make this correct.

D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
This is CORRECT! It uses semicolons to properly separate each item, allowing the commas inside each item to distinguish that they are defining each term and are not more list items.

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! It uses parallel structure and proper punctuation for a compound list.


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.


How can one spot if something is a compound list or a normal list? Such as in this example?


Hello jamalabdullah100!

Here is an easy way to figure out if you're dealing with a simple list or a compound list:

Simple List = each item in the list is simply written and doesn't contain any punctuation --> each item is separated by a comma
Compound List = each item in the list is complex and contains a comma or other punctuation --> each item is separated by a semicolon

For simple lists, each item doesn't contain any punctuation, so separating them with commas is clear enough:

I went to the grocery store to buy marshmallows, chocolate bars, and graham crackers to make s'mores.

For compound lists, each item contains some kind of punctuation. Separating each item with a comma would be confusing, so using a semicolon is a clearer way of telling readers what items go where:

Over the past 10 years, I have lived in Phoenix, AZ; Detroit, MI; Seattle, WA; and Miami, FL.

Each item in the list above is a city and state. Separating them with commas would be confusing - it would say you've lived in Phoenix AND Arizona, instead of saying you've lived in Phoenix, Arizona. Using semicolons makes it clear that you're listing cities and states together.

When we look at the correct option, we can clearly determine what each of the items is:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others; and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

If we don't separate each item with a semicolon, we might accidentally assume that "mindfulness" and "the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them" are two different things. Instead, we can clearly see that those two items go together (a term + its definition), and that all the other items in the list are set up the same way.

So remember - if each item in the list contains its own punctuation, it's a compound list. If each item doesn't contain its own punctuation, it's a simple list!

I hope that helps!
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2019, 10:19
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

While this may look like an incredibly complicated question to answer, we think you can tackle it pretty quickly if you can identify what type of question it is: a LIST question! To begin, let's take a quick scan over the options and highlight any major differences in orange:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

After a quick scan, there are a few key differences we can focus on here:

1. repressing / repression of / repress (Parallelism)
2. , common / , and common / ; common (Punctuation & Lists)
3. , or empathy / , empathy / , an empathy / , to empathize (Parallelism & Punctuation)
4. others, / others; / others (Punctuation & Lists)


There is a lot here, so let's focus on #1 on our list: Parallelism. This should be a pretty easy way to eliminate a couple wrong choices quickly. To figure out what the word repressing/repression/repress is paired with, we need to look to the non-underlined portion of the sentence:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

We need to keep "being carried away" the way it is because it's not underlined, and eliminate the options that don't use parallel structure:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
B. away, or repression of them, and common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
E. away or repress them; common humanity, to empathize with the suffering of others

We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use an -ing word to make them parallel to "being carried away."

Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let's focus on the fact that this is a LIST question. If we look carefully, we see that this isn't just any old list - it's a COMPOUND LIST:

Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoughts and emotions without being carried away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others, and self-kindness, a recognition of your own suffering and a commitment to solving the problem.

A compound list is a type of list where each item includes commas within it, which makes figuring out which items go together incredibly difficult. For compound sentences, you should separate each item with a semicolon (;), rather than just a comma. That way, it's clearer to readers what goes with what.

Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate those that don't:

A. away or repressing them, common humanity, or empathy with the suffering of others,
This is INCORRECT because there should be a semicolon separating each item instead of just a comma. For this sentence, there needs to be semicolons before "common" and after "others" to properly break up the list.

C. away, or repressing them, common humanity, empathy with the suffering of others;
This is INCORRECT because it doesn't separate mindfulness from common humanity with a semicolon like it needs to. It does separate common humanity from self-kindness, but that's not enough to make this correct.

D. away or repressing them; common humanity, an empathy with the suffering of others;
This is CORRECT! It uses semicolons to properly separate each item, allowing the commas inside each item to distinguish that they are defining each term and are not more list items.

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! It uses parallel structure and proper punctuation for a compound list.


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.


Hi - can you please explain the ruole around this - We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use an -ing word to make them parallel to "being carried away."
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Re: Self-compassion is made up of mindfulness, the ability to manage thoug   [#permalink] 23 Jul 2019, 10:19
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