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# Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent

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BSchool Forum Moderator
Status: Transforming Educational System
Joined: 21 Sep 2016
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Location: India
Concentration: Nonprofit, Social Entrepreneurship
Schools: Boston U '20 (A)
WE: Education (Non-Profit and Government)
Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2017, 13:48
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Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

55% (01:38) correct 45% (01:47) wrong based on 233 sessions

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Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent of strict vegetarians reached age 50 without developing serious heart disease. We can conclude from this that avoiding meat increases one’s chances of avoiding serious heart disease. Therefore, people who want to reduce the risk of serious heart disease should not eat meat.

The flawed pattern of reasoning exhibited by which one of the following is most similar to that exhibited by the argument above?

(A) The majority of people who regularly drive over the speed limit will become involved in traffic accidents. To avoid harm to people who do not drive over the speed limit, we should hire more police officers to enforce the speed laws.
(B) Studies have shown that cigarette smokers have a greater chance of incurring heart disease than people who do not smoke. Since cigarette smoking increases one’s chances of incurring heart disease, people who want to try to avoid heart disease should give up cigarette smoking.
(C) The majority of people who regularly drink coffee experience dental problems in the latter part of their lives. Since there is this correlation between drinking coffee and incurring dental problems, the government should make coffee less accessible to the general public.
(D) Studies show that people who do not exercise regularly have a shorter life expectancy than those who exercise regularly. To help increase their patients’ life expectancy, doctors should recommend regular exercise to their patients.
(E) Most people who exercise regularly are able to handle stress. This shows that exercising regularly decreases one’s chances of being overwhelmed by stress. So people who want to be able to handle stress should regularly engage in exercise.

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Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2017, 19:52
1
95 percent of strict vegetarians reached age 50 without developing serious heart disease.
conclude from this that avoiding meat increases one’s chances of avoiding serious heart disease

--> fallacy of hasty generalization

In (E)
Most people who exercise regularly are able to handle stress.
exercising regularly decreases one’s chances of being overwhelmed by stress.

It is tricky because (E) is subtly different from a typical "fallacy of hasty generalization" sentences
Director
Joined: 27 May 2012
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Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2017, 04:14
vivek6199 wrote:
Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent of strict vegetarians reached age 50 without developing serious heart disease. We can conclude from this that avoiding meat increases one’s chances of avoiding serious heart disease. Therefore, people who want to reduce the risk of serious heart disease should not eat meat.

The flawed pattern of reasoning exhibited by which one of the following is most similar to that exhibited by the argument above?

(A) The majority of people who regularly drive over the speed limit will become involved in traffic accidents. To avoid harm to people who do not drive over the speed limit, we should hire more police officers to enforce the speed laws.
(B) Studies have shown that cigarette smokers have a greater chance of incurring heart disease than people who do not smoke. Since cigarette smoking increases one’s chances of incurring heart disease, people who want to try to avoid heart disease should give up cigarette smoking.
(C) The majority of people who regularly drink coffee experience dental problems in the latter part of their lives. Since there is this correlation between drinking coffee and incurring dental problems, the government should make coffee less accessible to the general public.
(D) Studies show that people who do not exercise regularly have a shorter life expectancy than those who exercise regularly. To help increase their patients’ life expectancy, doctors should recommend regular exercise to their patients.
(E) Most people who exercise regularly are able to handle stress. This shows that exercising regularly decreases one’s chances of being overwhelmed by stress. So people who want to be able to handle stress should regularly engage in exercise.

Please explain why B is wrong and how is B different from E? Thank you.
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- Stne

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Joined: 24 Jan 2015
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Location: India
Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2017, 03:35
Need to understand on why is 'B' is incorrect, can any expert help?
Intern
Joined: 27 Mar 2018
Posts: 3
Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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07 May 2018, 23:36
stne wrote:
vivek6199 wrote:
Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent of strict vegetarians reached age 50 without developing serious heart disease. We can conclude from this that avoiding meat increases one’s chances of avoiding serious heart disease. Therefore, people who want to reduce the risk of serious heart disease should not eat meat.

The flawed pattern of reasoning exhibited by which one of the following is most similar to that exhibited by the argument above?

(A) The majority of people who regularly drive over the speed limit will become involved in traffic accidents. To avoid harm to people who do not drive over the speed limit, we should hire more police officers to enforce the speed laws.
(B) Studies have shown that cigarette smokers have a greater chance of incurring heart disease than people who do not smoke. Since cigarette smoking increases one’s chances of incurring heart disease, people who want to try to avoid heart disease should give up cigarette smoking.
(C) The majority of people who regularly drink coffee experience dental problems in the latter part of their lives. Since there is this correlation between drinking coffee and incurring dental problems, the government should make coffee less accessible to the general public.
(D) Studies show that people who do not exercise regularly have a shorter life expectancy than those who exercise regularly. To help increase their patients’ life expectancy, doctors should recommend regular exercise to their patients.
(E) Most people who exercise regularly are able to handle stress. This shows that exercising regularly decreases one’s chances of being overwhelmed by stress. So people who want to be able to handle stress should regularly engage in exercise.

Please explain why B is wrong and how is B different from E? Thank you.

I have filtered between Option B and E on the following lines-
In Option B, please note that the comparison is drawn between Smokers and Non Smokers clearly that means its either a smoker or a non smoker. While the given information talks about only certain fraction of strict vegetarians and NOT all vegetarian . Option E again talks about fraction by using the word " Most people " . This should serve as a hint between the two options.
Intern
Joined: 03 Jan 2016
Posts: 29
Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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13 May 2018, 05:56
Tone and approach of E is more similar to the question. Place each clause next to each other and you would understand.
Director
Joined: 02 Oct 2017
Posts: 616
Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent  [#permalink]

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28 May 2018, 05:53
E) Most people who exercise regularly are able to handle stress. This shows that exercising regularly decreases one’s chances of being overwhelmed by stress. So people who want to be able to handle stress should regularly engage in exercise

E makes a series of two conclusion based on one statement.same as argument in passage does whereas B

B) Studies have shown that cigarette smokers have a greater chance of incurring heart disease than people who do not smoke. Since cigarette smoking increases one’s chances of incurring heart disease, people who want to try to avoid heart disease should give up cigarette smoking.

B introduces second reason or fact in second sentence and then make final conclusion which is not in main argument.

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Re: Several carefully conducted studies showed that 95 percent &nbs [#permalink] 28 May 2018, 05:53
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