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Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t

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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2015, 07:40
lipsi18 wrote:
Could anybody say why answer choice A is incorrect?
Thanks in advance


Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older technologies to new technology.
It is thus evident that less fossil fuel is being used as a result of the operations of these induestries than would have been used if these industries had retained their older technologies.

Say,

Let initial amount of fossil fuel used be 100
after they partly shifted say no we use 50 of fossil fuel and 50 of electricity.

this is a strengthen question so we need a similar info to support the argument. Choice A says that
Quote:
A) Many of the industries that have switched to at least partly to new technologies have increased their output.


If the output is increased, then to say 150
the this output may be out of 75e+75f(fossil usage increased) or 100e+50f(fossil usage decreased).
So this option neither strengthens nor weakens the conclusion properly.

I hope this helps.
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2016, 19:25
for E. --> I don't think that the plant would have to generate the electricity itself (can be bought from the electricity plant), so I think it's out of topic to mention about how electricity was produced
then I choose C.

what's wrong with my logic?
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2016, 12:18
The correct answer is E

Old technology uses more fossil fuel
New technology powered by electricity

Conclusion New technology use less fossil fuel

Can you see the gap :-Old technology use fossil fuel, New technology uses Electricity and suddenly the conclusion is made that new technology uses less fossil fuel.
SO the missing link is that somehow fossil fuel should figure in relation to new technology.

For example see this argument
Bob can solve 12 questions in one minute
John can eat 15 donuts in one minute
Therefore John is more talented than Bob

Does this comparison makes sense.. "NO" ==> Eating donuts and solving questions are two different talents and thus cannot be compared. So to strengthen the conclusion that John (donut eating kid) is more talented, we have to show something John can solve questions also. Then only a logical comparison between Him and bob will be established. So in this the correct strengthen will be :- When Bob solve questions while eating donuts , his error rate is 58 %, whereas John can eat donuts and solve same number of question with only 10 percent error rate.

SO applying this same principle in the given question we can see that somehow we need to correlate Old technology, New Technology, electricity and fossil fuels to make sense of the relationship between them.

Only option E does it perfectly
E) The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricty needed to power the new technologies is less than amount that would have been uesed to power the older technologies --> Yup. correct tells that what is the relation ship between fossil fuel and technology and electricity ; thus now the comparison of old and new technology is valid and the conclusion is intactly supported



tracyyahoo wrote:
67. Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older technologies powered by fossil fuels to new technology powered by electricity. It is thus evident that less fossil fuel is being used as a result of the operations of these induestries than would have been used if these industries had retained their older technologies.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument above?

A) Many of the industries that have switched to at least partly to new technologies have increased their output.
B) Less fossil fuel was used to manufacture the machinery employed in the new technologies than was orginally used to manufacture the machinery employed in the older technologies.
C) More electricity is used to by those industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies than by those industries that have not switched.
D) Some of the industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies still use primarily technologies that are powered by fossil fuel.
E) The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricty needed to power the new technologies is less than amount that would have been uesed to power the older technologies.

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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2016, 01:17
1
B is just re statement of the last line of the argument.

If you can find better strengthner than B , then that choice is the answer.

E strenthens more than B
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2016, 21:57
Here we just need to focus on the relationship of electricity, fossil fuel.
(B) should we compare the fuel to produce machinery here? If we change to new technology, we need to produce new machinery, but if we use the old technology, do we need to produce the same amount of machinery or we can use the old one? This comparison is unclear.
--> choose E
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2017, 00:40
mikemcgarry sayantanc2k

As per the premise it is mentioned that the usage of FF will be minimised or the usage will decline,
I was stuck between B and E and in the end chose the wrong option B, however, Can we eliminate option B on the basis of the word :Manufacturing: as the premise is talking about the usage of the FF and not about the where the FF was used to manufacture?
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2017, 16:19
2
siddyj94 wrote:
mikemcgarry sayantanc2k

As per the premise it is mentioned that the usage of FF will be minimised or the usage will decline,
I was stuck between B and E and in the end chose the wrong option B, however, Can we eliminate option B on the basis of the word :Manufacturing: as the premise is talking about the usage of the FF and not about the where the FF was used to manufacture?

Dear siddyj94,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, the logic needed on the GMAT CR is the logic of the real business world. You cannot think about GMAT CR arguments in a vacuum. You have to think about the way money changes hands every day in the business world. See this blog post:
GMAT Critical Reasoning and Outside Knowledge

(B) concerns a one-time expense. The "machinery employed in the new technologies" is manufactured once, and then no more energy is expended on that process. The machines are ready to use.

(E) concerns an ongoing process---every single day, the factories will be drawing more electricity to run their machines. If this electricity comes from fossil fuels, then every day, new quantities of fossil fuels will be burned. That's an every day continuing drain on resources, as opposed to a one-time tapping of resources.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2018, 23:11
Stuck in B and E for this question but thanks for the explanation and now I am clear.
I have checked with OA and can someone explain why A is a weakener instead of Out of Scope?
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2018, 23:15
lipsi18 wrote:
Could anybody say why answer choice A is incorrect?
Thanks in advance


I will try to take a stab at addressing your concern. Option A says that the industries switched to new technologies have increased their output. This could mean two things (1) newer machines which are powered by electricity are efficient due to which the industries are able to increase their output for a given input (electricity/fossil fuel burnt) (2) newer machines are used longer than before to increase their output.
In case (1) the electricity used is constant where as in case (2) electricity used and thus fossil fuel burnt to make electricity is increased.
However, the argument concludes by saying less fossil fuel is burnt and we need to support it.
In either of the above cases we couldn't make a conclusion that lesser fossil fuels are burnt.
You could make an argument, what if electricity is generated by non-renewable resources such as solar/wind/tidal energy then we may support the question stem however we don't know that from the question stem or options.
So option A has many ambiguities and not clearly strengthening the argument.
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2018, 05:14
tracyyahoo wrote:
Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older technologies powered by fossil fuels to new technology powered by electricity. It is thus evident that less fossil fuel is being used as a result of the operations of these industries than would have been used if these industries had retained their older technologies.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument above?

(A) Many of the industries that have switched to at least partly to new technologies have increased their output.

(B) Less fossil fuel was used to manufacture the machinery employed in the new technologies than was originally used to manufacture the machinery employed in the older technologies.

(C) More electricity is used to by those industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies than by those industries that have not switched.

(D) Some of the industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies still use primarily technologies that are powered by fossil fuel.

(E) The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricity needed to power the new technologies is less than amount that would have been used to power the older technologies.



ARGUMENT CONSTRUCTION:
Shift in technology happens from Older to Newer but not in all of the factory rather in phases.
This **** is quite intresting because , there is also shift of power source for the new technology.
So in all less fossil fuel is burned compared to situation when the technology was old.

Conclusion, precisely is that
Hey u know because of advancement in technology powered by alternate source of energy , Comp are burning less fossil fuel

When can we say somegting is less than the other thing. Only if we can know their quantities. So

Assumption: The amt of fossil fuel burnt before the new tech was introduced is more than the amt of fossil fuel burnt after the new tech was introduced.



Answer Choice Analysis:

(A) Many of the industries that have switched to at least partly to new technologies have increased their output.

If the O/p is increased then net effect of saving fossil fuel is vanished,
So , Incorrect

(B) Less fossil fuel was used to manufacture the machinery employed in the new technologies than was originally used to manufacture the machinery employed in the older technologies.

First, the argument is concerned with industries that have switched their technology and amount of fossil fuel burnt by them before and after the switch.
This option talks about new tech machinery vs old tech machine employed in such industries( where change took place). All we know is the fossil fuel used to manufacture was less. But does it give us any idea of how much fossil fuel is saved or burnt to run this machine where this machine is installed. No

It could be that to power new tech we many need to burn more or same fossil fuel.

So incorrect

(C) More electricity is used to by those industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies than by those industries that have not switched.

Its in line of the argument because new tech employed is powered by electricity so obviously we would see such increase in electricity consumption, but again do we know amount of Fossil Fuel burnt to meet the increased demand of electricity. It could be more or less .
So Incorrect

(D) Some of the industries that have switched at least partly to the new technologies still use primarily technologies that are powered by fossil fuel.

If this were inference question , it would be nearly close answer. Since we are looking for a strengthener, we want some new information that would strengthen the argument..

So Incorrect.

(E) The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricity needed to power the new technologies is less than amount that would have been used to power the older technologies

Yes , Correct, because the only left option in the answer choices :-) .
Logically: This option is clear mathematical term explaining inequality.

The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricity needed to power the new technologies <The amount of fossil fuel used to generate the energy(or if we want to think of energy as electricity) needed to power the older technology.


For some how I wanted to bring this information because this question reminds me of something that can be very helpful for those who prethink .
What are the characteristics of a strengthener.
1. New Information
and
2.this New Information must support the Conclusion
but,
3 this new information supporting the conclusion "May or may not be always be true for the conclusion to hold true"

And Option E .
Yes its a new information and yes it supports the conclusion, increasing our belief in authors argument (conclusion). But what is noteworthy here is that this New information is also an assumption that author makes to conclude his argument. This new information must always be true for the conclusion to hold true.


So Every Assumption is a strengthener but every strengthener is not an assumption.

Thanks,
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Re: Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 02:57
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Let me try to help those, who might need some sort of support in understanding why B is wrong whereas E is the OA.
B. B talks about those machineries , which will be used to employ the new technology, would need less FF to get manufactured. Are we talking about the machine and machineries that we may need in our actual operation that is being discussed? No. B talks about some something that we don't know Can't say.
E. FF--> EP << FF itself. This is what was asked to strengthen if we look into the conclusion.
In case you need further help , feel free to share your line of thought

Exactly, the devil is in the details friends. The conclusion focus on the operation aspect and not on the manufacturing aspect.
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Several industries have recently switched at least partly from older t  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 20:08
Option B talks about manufacturing aspect but does not takes into account the post manufacturing of machine. What was used to run those machines?? It can be possible fossil fuels were used. This option is paradoxical.

Option E clearly highlights the shortcomings mentioned above . Therefor E is correct.

It is a very good question to learn from.This highlights the importance of OG.
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