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# Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass

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Intern
Joined: 17 Jul 2007
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Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2007, 23:52
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Question Stats:

82% (01:12) correct 18% (02:38) wrong based on 135 sessions

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Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass than any other organism. They also have a greater resistance to cancer than any other organism. Shark cartilage contains a substance that inhibits tumor growth by stopping the development of a new blood network. In the past 20 years, none of the responses among terminal cancer patients to various therapeutic measures has been more positive than the response among those who consumed shark cartilage.

If the claims made above are true, then each of the following could be true except:
a) No organism resists cancer better than shars do, but some resist cancer as well as sharks.
b) The organism most susceptible to cancer has a higher percentage of cartilage than some organisms that are less susceptible to cancer.
c) The substance in shark cartilage that inhibits tumor growth is found in most orgamisms.
d) In the pas 20 years many terminal cancer patiesnt have imporoved dramatically following many sorts of therapy.
e) Some organisms have immune systems more efficient than a shark's immune system.
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Joined: 11 Jun 2007
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Updated on: 21 Jul 2007, 08:46
ham1231 wrote:
Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass than any other organism. They also have a greater resistance to cancer than any other organism. Shark cartilage contains a substance that inhibits tumor growth by stopping the development of a new blood network. In the past 20 years, none of the responses among terminal cancer patients to various therapeutic measures has been more positive than the response among those who consumed shark cartilage.

If the claims made above are true, then each of the following could be true except:
a) No organism resists cancer better than shars do, but some resist cancer as well as sharks.
b) The organism most susceptible to cancer has a higher percentage of cartilage than some organisms that are less susceptible to cancer.
c) The substance in shark cartilage that inhibits tumor growth is found in most orgamisms.
d) In the pas 20 years many terminal cancer patiesnt have imporoved dramatically following many sorts of therapy.
e) Some organisms have immune systems more efficient than a shark's immune system.

Originally posted by beckee529 on 21 Jul 2007, 00:05.
Last edited by beckee529 on 21 Jul 2007, 08:46, edited 1 time in total.
Director
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21 Jul 2007, 03:45
1
It should be 'B'

'B' can't be true as the author has already said that sharks that have higher cartilage mass than any other mechanism, are more resistant to cancer.
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Joined: 29 Jul 2006
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21 Jul 2007, 08:00
B it is...If Sharks have higher cartilage mass,it doesnt mean that they are more susceptible to cancer.
Intern
Joined: 17 Jul 2007
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21 Jul 2007, 23:51
OA is not B, guys.

OA is A.
At claims, it is clearly mentoined that Sharks have a greater resistance to cancer than any other organism. In A, the part of 'but some~as sharks' cannot be true. Since the question is 'could not be true except', answer is A.

But why B could be true?

Still don't know.
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Joined: 17 Oct 2014
Posts: 29
Re: Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2014, 08:49
1
ham1231 wrote:
OA is not B, guys.

But why B could be true?

Still don't know.
Hey folks,

Looks like this is a tough one!

Let's look at we know: Sharks have the highest ratio of mass to cartilage of any organism; they also have the highest resistance to cancer of any organism.

That's one sample point. It's an interesting coincidence, but we don't have enough evidence to determine if these are actually correlated, let alone if there is a causal factor here! Anything could be true about organisms with less cartilage and more cancer susceptibility; nothing in the prompt suggests that an organism with more cartilage must always have more cancer resistance than an organism with less. Thus, (B) could certainly be true.

On the other hand, we know from the prompt that the amount of cartilage in sharks is "higher...than any other organism." This directly contradicts option (A), which cannot be true--and is therefore the correct answer.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass  [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2018, 08:33
Request your kind help GMATNinja mikemcgarry.

Regards
Manish
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 30 Oct 2017
Posts: 170
Re: Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass  [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2018, 19:01
ManishKM1 wrote:
Request your kind help GMATNinja mikemcgarry.

Regards
Manish

Hi ManishKM1!

I can jump in for Mike here!

Answer (A) fits best here. (A) says that some organisms resist cancer as well as sharks do. This directly contradicts the argument's statement that sharks "have a greater resistance to cancer than any other organism." So we can safely say that (A) cannot be true if this argument is correct

(B), on the other hand, could just be a coincidence, or irrelevant. The argument here is telling us that shark cartilage specifically helps organisms resist cancer. That doesn't mean that all cartilage necessarily will help an organism resist cancer. There's something specific to shark cartilage that's beneficial -- the particular substance which stops the development of a new tumor blood network. We don't know if all cartilage has this substance, or just shark cartilage. So the cartilage that another organism has might not have the same beneficial properties as shark cartilage does, which means the amount of cartilage they have wouldn't necessarily have anything to do with how susceptible they are to cancer.

Does that make sense? Hope that helps!
-Carolyn
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Re: Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2018, 00:37
MagooshExpert wrote:

Hi ManishKM1!

I can jump in for Mike here!

Answer (A) fits best here. (A) says that some organisms resist cancer as well as sharks do. This directly contradicts the argument's statement that "sharks have a greater resistance to cancer than any other organism." So we can safely say that (A) cannot be true if this argument is correct

Does that make sense? Hope that helps!
-Carolyn

Hi,

I am interpreting some organisms resist cancer as well as sharks do as - some organisms as well as sharks resist cancer.
If this understanding is correct, I fail to understand how these two highlighted statements contradict each other. If sharks have greater resistance than any other organisms, that does not mean other organisms can not have resistance at all.So A is in line with the statement given in the argument.

mikemcgarry, please let me know whether my reasoning is flawed.
Thank you.
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Re: Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2018, 21:37
TaN1213 wrote:
Hi,

I am interpreting some organisms resist cancer as well as sharks do as - some organisms as well as sharks resist cancer.
If this understanding is correct, I fail to understand how these two highlighted statements contradict each other. If sharks have greater resistance than any other organisms, that does not mean other organisms can not have resistance at all.So A is in line with the statement given in the argument.

mikemcgarry, please let me know whether my reasoning is flawed.
Thank you.

Hi TaN1213,

Ah, I understand what you mean Option A states:

A) No organism resists cancer better than sharks do, but some resist cancer as well as sharks.

Now, it is incorrect to interpret this to mean that "some organisms, as well as sharks, resist cancer". If that were the case, then this sentence would be an example of incorrect parallelism, in addition to just bad wording. Here, we have a comparison, which means we must have parallel structure. We are only allowed to omit words in parallel if the meaning is clear (that is, if certain words would be repeated). In this case, the words that are omitted are "resist cancer":

"Some resist cancer as well as sharks resist cancer."

Since the "resist cancer" part is repeated, we can omit it, leaving us with just "some resist cancer as well as sharks". For more on this, see this article:

Dropping Common Words in Parallel on the GMAT

If "as well as sharks" were meant to be the subject (as in "some organisms, as well as sharks, resist cancer"), then it would have to appear in exactly that order -- with "as well as sharks" right next to "some". We can't just add additional subjects, or subject modifiers, to the end of a sentence. For example, we can't say: "Apples are fruits as well as oranges." This is a grammatically incorrect sentence. We need to say: "Apples, as well as oranges, are fruits". If the phrase starting with "as well as" is modifying the subject (and is therefore acting as part of the subject), it needs to come right next to it. Modifiers can't appear after the verb, at the end of the sentence.

So, we can definitively say that "some resist cancer as well as sharks" does NOT mean "some, as well as sharks, resist cancer". Instead, it means that some organisms resist cancer as well as sharks resist cancer. And since that is a clear contradiction of the passage, it fits as an answer.

Does that help clear things up? If not, let me know!
-Carolyn
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Re: Sharks have a higher ratio of cartilage mass to body mass &nbs [#permalink] 13 Feb 2018, 21:37
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