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# Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w

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Math Expert
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Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w  [#permalink]

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01 May 2018, 01:53
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Difficulty:

15% (low)

Question Stats:

73% (01:17) correct 27% (01:49) wrong based on 152 sessions

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Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy was made by Adam Riess, an American astronomer, and Brian Schmidt, an Australian astronomer, other tools emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by how it retards the growth of galaxies and other structures in the universe.

A. emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by

B. emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy through

C. emerged through which astronomers can gauge dark energy through

D. have emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by

E. have emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy by

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Re: Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w  [#permalink]

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01 May 2018, 02:07
1
Here since is used with respect to the time (Since 1988)
so we require present perfect tense. A, B & C are out.

D. other tools have emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by... Looks logical

E. have emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy by..... Nonsensical.

IMO D.
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Re: Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w  [#permalink]

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02 May 2018, 07:56
+1 for D
Usage of since with present perfect => D, E remains..E is absurd so out
Bunuel wrote:
Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy was made by Adam Riess, an American astronomer, and Brian Schmidt, an Australian astronomer, other tools emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by how it retards the growth of galaxies and other structures in the universe.

A. emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by

B. emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy through

C. emerged through which astronomers can gauge dark energy through

D. have emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by

E. have emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy by

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Re: Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w  [#permalink]

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07 May 2018, 01:16
Bunuel wrote:
Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy was made by Adam Riess, an American astronomer, and Brian Schmidt, an Australian astronomer, other tools emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by how it retards the growth of galaxies and other structures in the universe.

A. emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by

B. emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy through

C. emerged through which astronomers can gauge dark energy through

D. have emerged by which astronomers can gauge dark energy by

E. have emerged that astronomers can gauge dark energy by

VERITAS PREP OFFICIAL SOLUTION:

For this problem, start by analyzing the concrete decision point of tense between “emerged” and “have emerged” at the start of the answer choices. At the beginning of the sentence, separated by several long modifiers, you have the important expression of time “Since 1998…” This demands use of the present perfect tense so you can confidently eliminate (A), (B), and (C). You cannot say: “Since 1998, other tools emerged…”

In deciding between (D) and (E) you only have one difference: “that” or “by which” after “have emerged”. A careful reading of the core sentence with a focus on meaning shows that it must be “by which." As is usually the case with Sentence Correction it is likely easier to see the flaw in the wrong answer than it is to gravitate toward the right answer. Choice (E) does not offer a complete thought: the sentence is saying that astronomers can use these new emergent tools to gauge dark matter, and that they gauge the dark matter by how it retards the growth of galaxies. In (E) there is no link to the astronomers using these new tools - the only preposition, "by" only links dark matter to how it retards growth, while "astronomers can gauge dark energy" sits independently from the emergent tools. Choice (D) corrects that by employing the prepositional connector "by which" to link the tools to the astronomers' use of them. Therefore, (D) is correct.
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Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w  [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2019, 22:05
Meaning: The author says that since the first discovery of dark energy, other tools have emerged. With help of these tools astronomers can gauge dark energy by how dark energy retards the growth of galaxies and other structures in the universe.

Error:
1) 'Since' is used in reference of time. Hence, the main verb should use perfect tense. Per the context of the sentence present perfect tense should be used. Therefore, 'other tools emerged' should be changed to 'other tools have emerged'.

Since 1998, when the first direct discovery of so-called dark energy w   [#permalink] 03 Mar 2019, 22:05
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