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Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral co

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Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral codes that sometimes require them to ignore their own welfare to help others, civilized society could not exist without empathy.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) Civilized society can exist only if there are people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare to help others.

(B) Failure to empathize with other people usually leads to actions detrimental to civilized society.

(C) If everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilized.

(D) Moral codes that include the requirement that people disregard their own welfare in order to help others have arisen within some civilized societies.

(E) People who feel empathy tend to ignore their own welfare for the sake of others.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
guys show me some empathy here and explain this one? i tried negation technique but still got it wrong. i'll post the OA later
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by gtr022001 on 19 Feb 2011, 00:34, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral co [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2011, 23:29
The way civilized society is defined is -
People when ignore their own welfare to help others = civilized society. civilized society cannot exist without empathy (conclusion)

E is clear which ties both ends.

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New post 19 Feb 2011, 00:19
gmat1220 wrote:
The way civilized society is defined is -
People when ignore their own welfare to help others = civilized society. civilized society cannot exist without empathy (conclusion)

E is clear which ties both ends.


yes that is what i picked too! but its not the OA, any more tries? :(

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then it has to be A. :)

gtr022001 wrote:
gmat1220 wrote:
The way civilized society is defined is -
People when ignore their own welfare to help others = civilized society. civilized society cannot exist without empathy (conclusion)

E is clear which ties both ends.


yes that is what i picked too! but its not the OA, any more tries? :(

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New post 19 Feb 2011, 00:36
gmat1220 wrote:
then it has to be A. :)


yep OA is A!

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New post 19 Feb 2011, 00:40
civilized society "could not exist" - this is extreme. Hence the assumption is extreme. I didnt choose A since it rocked the boat too much and gmat answers are not aha !

gtr022001 wrote:
gmat1220 wrote:
then it has to be A. :)


yep OA is A!

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Re: Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral co [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2011, 07:13
Step 1: Identify the conclusion. Here the conclusion is "[therefore] civilized society could not exist without empathy"

Step 2 : Now look for the assumption/link/premise which connents Premise 1 to the Conclusion.

A makes it the best. Remember, if you negate "A" the conclusion falls apart"

Tip - assumption questions are another form of strenghten or weaken (support or defend) and these should make the conclusion hold true.

HTH

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New post 19 Feb 2011, 10:18
amma4u wrote:
Step 1: Identify the conclusion. Here the conclusion is "[therefore] civilized society could not exist without empathy"

Step 2 : Now look for the assumption/link/premise which connents Premise 1 to the Conclusion.

A makes it the best. Remember, if you negate "A" the conclusion falls apart"

Tip - assumption questions are another form of strenghten or weaken (support or defend) and these should make the conclusion hold true.

HTH


right, so i tried negating the following...
(A) Civilized society CANNOT exist only if there are people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare to help others.
(E) People who feel empathy tend to NOT ignore their own welfare for the sake of others.

when i negate (A), doesn't it just repeat what the argument said? i thought (E) negated weakened the argument more but i guess not. Thoughts?

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If you have gone thru MGMAT CR guide it says don't negate the assumption by taking the extreme negation. It says "least negative". CANNOT is most extreme negation.

Least negative assumption -
(A) Civilized society NOT NECESSARILYexist only if there are people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare to help others.

(E) People who feel empathy tend to NOT NECESSARILYignore their own welfare for the sake of others.

negation A destroys the arg but negation E does not.

gtr022001 wrote:

right, so i tried negating the following...
(A) Civilized society CANNOT exist only if there are people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare to help others.
(E) People who feel empathy tend to NOT ignore their own welfare for the sake of others.

when i negate (A), doesn't it just repeat what the argument said? i thought (E) negated weakened the argument more but i guess not. Thoughts?

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Premise: Empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral codes that sometimes require them to ignore their own welfare to help others.

Conclusion: Civilized society could not exist without empathy.

There is no link in argument between \(Civilized society and people who ignore their own welfare to help others\).

Our assumption should be: \(Civilized society can exist only if there are people who ignore their own welfare to help others\).

Ans :A.

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New post 24 Aug 2017, 11:51
@GMATNinja please throw some light on this question. Why is option "C" incorrect and why is option "A" correct?
I think both are having same meaning. Both say that moral character is essential for a society to be civilised.

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gmatexam439 wrote:
GMATNinja please throw some light on this question. Why is option "C" incorrect and why is option "A" correct?
I think both are having same meaning. Both say that moral character is essential for a society to be civilised.

Regards

Quote:
Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral codes that sometimes require them to ignore their own welfare to help others, civilized society could not exist without empathy.

The passage tells us that empathy is essential in order to follow codes that sometimes require ignoring one's own welfare to help others. The author then concludes that civilized society could not exist without empathy. Thus, the author assumes that people must sometimes be able to ignore their own welfare in order for civilized society to exist. In other words, the author is assuming that a necessary condition for having a civilized society is having people who are sometimes able to ignore their own welfare. This assumption is described in choice (A):

Quote:
(A) Civilized society can exist only if there are people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare to help others.

If empathy is essential for people to ignore their own welfare and having a civilized society requires having people who are sometimes able to ignore their own welfare, then the author's conclusion is valid: "civilized society could not exist without empathy."

Now let's take a look at choice (C):

Quote:
(C) If everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilized.

Having SOME people who are sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare to help others has to be a NECESSARY condition in order for the author's conclusion to be valid. However, according to choice (C), having a society where EVERYONE is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare is a SUFFICIENT condition for having a civilized society. In other words, according to choice (C), if everyone is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare to help others, then you WILL have a civilized society, regardless of any other factors.

The author's conclusion might be valid if choice (C) is true, but the author's conclusion does not require that choice (C) is true. For example, what if we change (C) to: "If everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society might be civilized." In that case, having some people who are willing to ignore their own welfare could still be a necessary condition, and the author's conclusion would still be valid.

Choice (C) says that the author's argument is only valid if we assume that have a society where EVERYONE is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare is a sufficient condition for having a civilized society. The author's conclusion does not REQUIRE that this be the case, so (C) must be eliminated.
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New post 02 Sep 2017, 01:55
GMATNinja wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
GMATNinja please throw some light on this question. Why is option "C" incorrect and why is option "A" correct?
I think both are having same meaning. Both say that moral character is essential for a society to be civilised.

Regards

Quote:
Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral codes that sometimes require them to ignore their own welfare to help others, civilized society could not exist without empathy.

The passage tells us that empathy is essential in order to follow codes that sometimes require ignoring one's own welfare to help others. The author then concludes that civilized society could not exist without empathy. Thus, the author assumes that people must sometimes be able to ignore their own welfare in order for civilized society to exist. In other words, the author is assuming that a necessary condition for having a civilized society is having people who are sometimes able to ignore their own welfare. This assumption is described in choice (A):

Quote:
(A) Civilized society can exist only if there are people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare to help others.

If empathy is essential for people to ignore their own welfare and having a civilized society requires having people who are sometimes able to ignore their own welfare, then the author's conclusion is valid: "civilized society could not exist without empathy."

Now let's take a look at choice (C):

Quote:
(C) If everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilized.

Having SOME people who are sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare to help others has to be a NECESSARY condition in order for the author's conclusion to be valid. However, according to choice (C), having a society where EVERYONE is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare is a SUFFICIENT condition for having a civilized society. In other words, according to choice (C), if everyone is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare to help others, then you WILL have a civilized society, regardless of any other factors.

The author's conclusion might be valid if choice (C) is true, but the author's conclusion does not require that choice (C) is true. For example, what if we change (C) to: "If everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society might be civilized." In that case, having some people who are willing to ignore their own welfare could still be a necessary condition, and the author's conclusion would still be valid.

Choice (C) says that the author's argument is only valid if we assume that have a society where EVERYONE is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare is a sufficient condition for having a civilized society. The author's conclusion does not REQUIRE that this be the case, so (C) must be eliminated.


Thank you for the explanation sensei. I was confused in this question because in GMAT the cause of any issue/event, basically anything, is absolute. So "giving up" for the sake of others is necessary condition for a good society. However, option "C" states that EVERYONE has to be willing to ignore their own welfare.

After going through your aforesaid explanation I understand that EVERYONE is an exaggeration and option A is better, but if we negate option "C", the conclusion falls apart.
Negation: If everyoneno one in a society is sometimes NOT willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilised.

Please point out the mistake in my above understanding. I am missing something here.
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Hi,
I am writing up my understanding, please correct me if I am missing something

Say
people to be willing to follow moral codes -> X
empathy -> Y
civilized society -> Z
Stimulus:
Since Y is essential for X, Z cannot be without Y.
My take
Z has X i.e Z cannot be without X.
Option C says
If X then it is Z which is not necessary.
So OA is A

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Re: Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral co [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2017, 19:50
gmatexam439 wrote:
Thank you for the explanation sensei. I was confused in this question because in GMAT the cause of any issue/event, basically anything, is absolute. So "giving up" for the sake of others is necessary condition for a good society. However, option "C" states that EVERYONE has to be willing to ignore their own welfare.

After going through your aforesaid explanation I understand that EVERYONE is an exaggeration and option A is better, but if we negate option "C", the conclusion falls apart.
Negation: If everyoneno one in a society is sometimes NOT willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilised.

Please point out the mistake in my above understanding. I am missing something here.

This is a good example of how the negation technique can be very difficult to apply. What exactly is the negation of choice (C)? This is not quite right: "If no one in a society is sometimes NOT willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilised."

Quote:
(C) If everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society will be civilized.

Choice (C) says that having a society where everyone is sometimes willing to ignore their own welfare is a SUFFICIENT condition for having a civilized society. The negation is simply that having everyone in society be willing to ignore his/her own welfare is NOT sufficient for having a civilized society. In other words, "if everyone in a society is sometimes willing to ignore his or her own welfare to help others, that society might be civilized."

This does not contradict the author's argument, which rests on the assumption that having people who are willing to at least sometimes ignore their own welfare is NECESSARY for having a civilized society, as stated in choice (A).

I hope that helps!
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Re: Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral co [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2017, 19:47
this question will never appear in the actual test b/c this one is from LSAT.
C and D are out of scope b/c they talk about the civilized nations.
both B and E use "tend", "usually" -> correlation -> wrong
B only tells about "detrimental"
A is right b/c of "only if" & "exist"

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Re: Since empathy is essential for people to be willing to follow moral co   [#permalink] 04 Dec 2017, 19:47
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