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# Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest

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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2016, 08:21
There is no issue with the original sentence, so answer choice A is the correct one by default.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2016, 08:18
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

becuase modifies verb, in option A becuase modifies which verb?

If we have option D as "D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will" - is it correct!

also if we replace "due to" with "caused by" doesn't it make sense.
whats wrong in saying caused by economy's continued strength; is that wrong since it modifies analysts

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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 01 Aug 2016, 03:22
smartguy595 wrote:
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

becuase modifies verb, in option A becuase modifies which verb?

If we have option D as "D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will" - is it correct!

also if we replace "due to" with "caused by" doesn't it make sense.
whats wrong in saying caused by economy's continued strength; is that wrong since it modifies analysts

You have to look at the clause in its entirety. the first clause has the verb "rise (raised)" and in the second clause even though "strength" is a noun that is modified by the adjectival phrase "economy's continued", the entire clause nonetheless has auxiliary verbs such as "will" & "be"and main verb such as "predict" & "rise" . This clearly indicates that we are dealing with two clauses with two set of verb phrases joined by the conjunction "and". Since we are dealing with verbs therefore you cannot use "due to" which can only modify noun or noun phrases.

If you ever have doubts regarding the usage of "due to " then simply replace it with "caused by" and then analyse whether the sentence is making sense or not. If the sentence does not make sense then "due to" usage is incorrect.
APPLY this rule here and see how absurd the sentence becomes:-
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and caused by economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November. AWKWARD AND INCORRECT.

Hope this helps. !!
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 29 Jul 2016, 08:30.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 01 Aug 2016, 03:22, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2016, 10:13
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smartguy595 wrote:
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

becuase modifies verb, in option A becuase modifies which verb?

If we have option D as "D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will" - is it correct!

also if we replace "due to" with "caused by" doesn't it make sense.
whats wrong in saying caused by economy's continued strength; is that wrong since it modifies analysts

Hello, smartguy595.

"becuase modifies verb, in option A becuase modifies which verb?"

IMHO the difficultness of this question lies in it reversed structure.
I think you seek the verb before the word "because".

What if we reconstruct this sentence a little bit:

"analysts have been predicting [something] because of the economy’s continued strength"

What do you think now? Which verb modifies the word "because"?
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2016, 12:26
Top Contributor
Harley1980 wrote:
smartguy595 wrote:
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

becuase modifies verb, in option A becuase modifies which verb?

If we have option D as "D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will" - is it correct!

also if we replace "due to" with "caused by" doesn't it make sense.
whats wrong in saying caused by economy's continued strength; is that wrong since it modifies analysts

Hello, smartguy595.

"becuase modifies verb, in option A becuase modifies which verb?"

IMHO the difficultness of this question lies in it reversed structure.
I think you seek the verb before the word "because".

What if we reconstruct this sentence a little bit:

"analysts have been predicting [something] because of the economy’s continued strength"

What do you think now? Which verb modifies the word "because"?

"Because" and "due to", by themselves, ARE NOT modifiers. (If you understand that a ""modifier"" is an additional description that explains or describes something, then you'll already know this -- it's clear that these words by themselves can't describe anything.)

"""Because xxxxx"", where xxxxx is a sentence, is a single modifier.

""Because of xxxxx"", where xxxxx is a noun (possibly with some modifiers of its own), is a single modifier.

""Due to xxxxx"", where xxxxx is a noun (possibly with some modifiers of its own), is a single modifier.

"Modifiers describe things. That's their function -- to give you extra information about something.
If you know this, then it's obvious that ""because"" and ""due to"", by themselves, are not modifiers -- they don't give any information about anything!"

We can say,
because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November. .......>Here the highlighted portion actually describes things. It gives information ,similar to "Because a truck flipped over" and "due to the fall"
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2016, 21:16
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will[/quote]

Thanks Harley1980, LogicGuru1, AbdurRakib.

I understand becuase modifies verb "have been predicting" in option A.

why is it awkward to say "due to the economy’s continued strength" . pls advise
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Jul 2016, 01:09
1
Top Contributor
smartguy595 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

Thanks Harley1980, LogicGuru1, AbdurRakib.

I understand becuase modifies verb "have been predicting" in option A.

why is it awkward to say "due to the economy’s continued strength" . pls advise

IMO,It feels right to say"due to the economy’s continued strength",we can consider other issues for our PoE. So,we have to consider "due to the economy’s continued strength" for its relationship to the rest of the sentence

D. Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target be raised again in November. ..........>Use of subjunctive illogical and distorted the intended meaning.Use of subjunctive depends on CONTEXT.

E.Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will be raised again in November. .........>"due to the fact of" is unidiomatic .Here past time-frame(predicted) is used but the intended meaning is bearing present perfect continuous time-frame(have been predicting),thus shifted the meaning
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Originally posted by AbdurRakib on 30 Jul 2016, 00:51.
Last edited by AbdurRakib on 30 Jul 2016, 01:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 01:06
1
Top Contributor
smartguy595 wrote:

Thanks Harley1980, LogicGuru1, AbdurRakib.

I understand becuase modifies verb "have been predicting" in option A.

why is it awkward to say "due to the economy’s continued strength" . pls advise

Hello smartguy595

If we take the same example:
"analysts have been predicting [something] because of the economy’s continued strength"
and change it on caused by:

"analysts have been predicting ... caused by of the economy’s continued strength"

Does it sound for you correct?
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 01:17
Harley1980 wrote:
smartguy595 wrote:

Thanks Harley1980, LogicGuru1, AbdurRakib.

I understand becuase modifies verb "have been predicting" in option A.

why is it awkward to say "due to the economy’s continued strength" . pls advise

Hello smartguy595

If we take the same example:
"analysts have been predicting [something] because of the economy’s continued strength"
and change it on caused by:

"analysts have been predicting ... caused by of the economy’s continued strength"

Does it sound for you correct?

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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2017, 23:53
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

As the rule goes by Because of refers to action and due to refers to noun.
Here the economy's continued strength is a noun. So shouldn't it be referred by due to and not because of.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2017, 19:36
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

(A) because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
(B) with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
(C) because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
(D) due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
(E) due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2017, 12:06
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

(A) because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
(B) with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
(C) because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
(D) due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
(E) due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

(A) because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will-correct answer- uses the right tense, will and have been are in the right place
(B) with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target-meaning of the sentence is changed with the phrase the economy's strength continuing and predicted is past tense
(C) because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would- because of is correct but economy continues strong and predicted are the wrong tense
(D) due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target- Due to is incorrect and you need will after target
(E) due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will- due to the fact is redundant, predicted is in the past tense but needs to be present perfect.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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09 May 2018, 08:20
I am thinking that because starts a subordinate clause, and it should not with connected with "and"
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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09 May 2018, 09:31
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Hi Kunal, a subordinate clause (Dependent clause) + an Independent clause, grammatically functions as an Independent clause. So, in the original sentence, following two Independent clauses are connected by coordinating conjunction and:

(i) Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times
- Independent clause

(ii) Because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November
- Subordinate clause (Because of...) + an Independent clause (analysts have been..), functioning as an Independent clause

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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2018, 04:14
GMATNinja egmat VeritasPrepKarishma

Is not 'because of' modifying a possessive noun : 'economy's continued strength' ;whereas it can only modify an action / verb ?
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2018, 21:54
daagh wrote:
Sample 1. Two things leaning more on grammar are important here.
1.Which to use Whether [color=#0000FF]analysts predicted or analysts have been predicting[/color]. Considering that, the prediction is still going on and not a competed task, we need to use present progressive tense. So A and D survive.
2. Use of the subjunctive mood verb 'be raised' in the sub clause is inappropriate. Prediction is not a bossy theme to entail the command subjunctive.

Therefore, A is the choice

Sample 2 deals with use of past perfect tense. In the underlined, portion the first ‘had’ denotes the past perfect marker and the second ‘had’ denotes the past participle of the verb ‘have’ meaning ‘achieved’.

a) Though he had had --- use of past perfect is appropriate since he had done so before he opted out - a verb of simple of past ---- correct choice.
b) Though he has had … use of present perfect is wrong when the whole scenario is in past setting.
c) Even though he had … absence of the first [color=#0000FF]had means the sentence is using two simple past tenses for denoting two events that happened at two different times; we need to use past perfect for the earlier event. .. Wrong [/color]
d) Having had ----A contrast marker is essential; Instead of contrast, the clause marks cause and effect … a case of altered intent
e) Having achieved ---- same as D

daagh
Why did u consider that the prediction is still going on, maybe the analysts predicted for weeks but later got tired and stopped predicting as in 'C'
in C past tense "predicted" with conditional "would" is right that way?
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2018, 01:54
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The prediction is valid until November. Only by November, one will know the actual. Therefore, the prediction remains intact until then.
If the original prediction is not currently existent, what is the new prediction now? There is no such thing. Therefore we have to take that the prediction is, as of now, continuing.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2018, 03:47
siddreal wrote:
daagh wrote:
Sample 1. Two things leaning more on grammar are important here.
1.Which to use Whether [color=#0000FF]analysts predicted or analysts have been predicting[/color]. Considering that, the prediction is still going on and not a competed task, we need to use present progressive tense. So A and D survive.
2. Use of the subjunctive mood verb 'be raised' in the sub clause is inappropriate. Prediction is not a bossy theme to entail the command subjunctive.

Therefore, A is the choice

Sample 2 deals with use of past perfect tense. In the underlined, portion the first ‘had’ denotes the past perfect marker and the second ‘had’ denotes the past participle of the verb ‘have’ meaning ‘achieved’.

a) Though he had had --- use of past perfect is appropriate since he had done so before he opted out - a verb of simple of past ---- correct choice.
b) Though he has had … use of present perfect is wrong when the whole scenario is in past setting.
c) Even though he had … absence of the first [color=#0000FF]had means the sentence is using two simple past tenses for denoting two events that happened at two different times; we need to use past perfect for the earlier event. .. Wrong [/color]
d) Having had ----A contrast marker is essential; Instead of contrast, the clause marks cause and effect … a case of altered intent
e) Having achieved ---- same as D

daagh
Why did u consider that the prediction is still going on, maybe the analysts predicted for weeks but later got tired and stopped predicting as in 'C'
in C past tense "predicted" with conditional "would" is right that way?
When we predict something in the past about the future and that future has still not arrived, we use will over would.

You must have listened to news channel saying that - PM announced that the army will start the rescue operation in Kerala from next week.

( at the time of speaking, next week is still future so we use WILL over would)

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Same is the case with option C. You can't use would in C.

Consider kudos if that helped.

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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2018, 05:09
sumit411 wrote:
siddreal wrote:
daagh wrote:
Sample 1. Two things leaning more on grammar are important here.
1.Which to use Whether [color=#0000FF]analysts predicted or analysts have been predicting[/color]. Considering that, the prediction is still going on and not a competed task, we need to use present progressive tense. So A and D survive.
2. Use of the subjunctive mood verb 'be raised' in the sub clause is inappropriate. Prediction is not a bossy theme to entail the command subjunctive.

Therefore, A is the choice

Sample 2 deals with use of past perfect tense. In the underlined, portion the first ‘had’ denotes the past perfect marker and the second ‘had’ denotes the past participle of the verb ‘have’ meaning ‘achieved’.

a) Though he had had --- use of past perfect is appropriate since he had done so before he opted out - a verb of simple of past ---- correct choice.
b) Though he has had … use of present perfect is wrong when the whole scenario is in past setting.
c) Even though he had … absence of the first [color=#0000FF]had means the sentence is using two simple past tenses for denoting two events that happened at two different times; we need to use past perfect for the earlier event. .. Wrong [/color]
d) Having had ----A contrast marker is essential; Instead of contrast, the clause marks cause and effect … a case of altered intent
e) Having achieved ---- same as D

daagh
Why did u consider that the prediction is still going on, maybe the analysts predicted for weeks but later got tired and stopped predicting as in 'C'
in C past tense "predicted" with conditional "would" is right that way?
When we predict something in the past about the future and that future has still not arrived, we use will over would.

You must have listened to news channel saying that - PM announced that the army will start the rescue operation in Kerala from next week.

( at the time of speaking, next week is still future so we use WILL over would)

________________

Same is the case with option C. You can't use would in C. [/url]

in case of news, the PM is sure that the Army WILL start the operation, hence usage is apt.
Whereas here, the rates will be raised or not is not definite(a prediction), hence WILL cannot be used in that sense, conditional WOULD is apt for that.
I do not mean to challenge the correct answer here, the above explanation I gave was only for the example of news quoted here.
However, still did not understand the reason for correct answer.

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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2018, 07:40
siddreal wrote:
sumit411 wrote:
siddreal wrote:
[quote="daagh"]Sample 1. Two things leaning more on grammar are important here.
1.Which to use Whether [color=#0000FF]analysts predicted or analysts have been predicting[/color]. Considering that, the prediction is still going on and not a competed task, we need to use present progressive tense. So A and D survive.
2. Use of the subjunctive mood verb 'be raised' in the sub clause is inappropriate. Prediction is not a bossy theme to entail the command subjunctive.

Therefore, A is the choice

Sample 2 deals with use of past perfect tense. In the underlined, portion the first ‘had’ denotes the past perfect marker and the second ‘had’ denotes the past participle of the verb ‘have’ meaning ‘achieved’.

a) Though he had had --- use of past perfect is appropriate since he had done so before he opted out - a verb of simple of past ---- correct choice.
b) Though he has had … use of present perfect is wrong when the whole scenario is in past setting.
c) Even though he had … absence of the first [color=#0000FF]had means the sentence is using two simple past tenses for denoting two events that happened at two different times; we need to use past perfect for the earlier event. .. Wrong [/color]
d) Having had ----A contrast marker is essential; Instead of contrast, the clause marks cause and effect … a case of altered intent
e) Having achieved ---- same as D

daagh
Why did u consider that the prediction is still going on, maybe the analysts predicted for weeks but later got tired and stopped predicting as in 'C'
in C past tense "predicted" with conditional "would" is right that way?
When we predict something in the past about the future and that future has still not arrived, we use will over would.

You must have listened to news channel saying that - PM announced that the army will start the rescue operation in Kerala from next week.

( at the time of speaking, next week is still future so we use WILL over would)

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Same is the case with option C. You can't use would in C. [/url]

in case of news, the PM is sure that the Army WILL start the operation, hence usage is apt.
Whereas here, the rates will be raised or not is not definite(a prediction), hence WILL cannot be used in that sense, conditional WOULD is apt for that.
I do not mean to challenge the correct answer here, the above explanation I gave was only for the example of news quoted here.
However, still did not understand the reason for correct answer.

sayantanc2k VeritasKarishma Pls help explaining the question/answer. GMATNinja[/quote]Don't you think prediction and would will be redundant ?

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Thank you =Kudos
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