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Since the 1994 introduction to supermarket shelves of

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Since the 1994 introduction to supermarket shelves of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2017, 03:39
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85% (02:08) correct 15% (01:30) wrong based on 239

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59% (00:38) correct 41% (00:59) wrong based on 229

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45% (00:52) correct 55% (01:17) wrong based on 217

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21% (00:47) correct 79% (00:55) wrong based on 211

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68% (00:44) correct 32% (00:42) wrong based on 214

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25% (00:39) correct 75% (01:13) wrong based on 209

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Source: McGraw Hills GMAT 2013

Since the 1994 introduction to supermarket shelves of Calgene’s Flavr Savr tomato, the first genetically modified food item to be offered to consumers, transgenic foods have made a quiet transformation of the food production system in America. The amount of farmland planted with transgenic crops exploded from barely over 10,000 acres in 1994 to approximately 200 million acres in 2004. The Grocery Manufacturers of America estimate that transgenic crops—primarily corn and soybeans—now appear in approximately 75 percent of all processed foods found in grocery stores. While many in the industry applaud this transformation as a beneficial use of technology that will improve products and profits, many observers are concerned that the long-term effects of these transgenic foods are still poorly understood.

Humans have been modifying food since the dawn of agriculture. The difference between conventional selective breeding and biotechnology is that instead of relying on natural but targeted reproductive processes, biotechnology relies on the tools of recombinant DNA technology, primarily restriction endonucleases and ligase enzymes, to alter the genetic codes of organisms in ways that could not occur in nature. One transgenic food organism, the “Bt potato,” combines the genetic code of a regular potato with that of the Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium, resulting in a potato that is poisonous to many types of insect pests, but still edible by humans

Critics of bioengineering warn that we have no long-term studies on the effects of such manipulation of food organisms. Modified foods might have unintended consequences for the health of people who eat them. The modifications introduced into domesticated crops might spread into wild plant species, fundamentally altering the ecosystem. Many critics have argued that the introduction of bioengineered foods gives biotechnology companies undue power over the processes of food production, and thereby leaves small farmers and farmers in the developing world at the mercy of large corporations. Perhaps the most common criticism leveled at transgenic foods is that they are “not natural.

Despite these criticisms, the agricultural industry in America has continued to move ahead with further research into and planting of transgenic crops. Government regulatory agencies, such as the EPA, the FDA, and the Department of Agriculture, have essentially given biotechnology companies free rein as long as they can establish that transgenic crops are “substantially similar” to conventional crops, and biotechnology companies have so far successfully fought off all efforts to have transgenic foods labeled as such. To date, no confirmed case of harmful health effects from transgenic foods has been documented. American consumers, although they consistently voice doubts about transgenic foods when asked about them on surveys, are apparently unconcerned that they eat, on average, several genetically modified foods each week.

1. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

A. The tools of recombinant DNA technology have spurred a fundamental transformation in the way in which food is engineered and grown.
B. A majority of Americans now eat transgenic foods because of the benefits in nutrition and cost offered by these new products.
C. Despite the fact that transgenic foods have been proven unsafe for human consumption, biotechnology companies have quietly achieved widespread distribution of these foods.
D. Genetically modified foods, although they face criticism from those who doubt their safety, have become a significant part of the American food production system.
E. Biotechnology offers a solution to the growing levels of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world, although critics worry that transgenic foods may have unintended health consequences


2. The passage mentions each of the following as concerns raised by critics of transgenic foods EXCEPT:

A. Transgenic foods might affect the health of consumers in unforeseen ways.
B. Transgenic foods may be more resistant to insect pests than conventional crops.
C. An agricultural distribution system based on genetically modified food will leave small farmers dependent on biotechnology conglomerates.
D. There is no data on what the health effects may be for humans who eat transgenic foods over a period of several decades.
E. Plant species in the wild might become contaminated by genetically modified species


3. Which of the following inferences drawn from the statements in the final paragraph, if accurate, might best explain the apparently contradictory finding that Americans voice concerns over transgenic foods in polls but consume these foods on a regular basis?

A. Government regulatory agencies have approved the sale of transgenic foods to consumers as long as the producers can establish that the transgenic foods are “substantially similar” to conventional foods.
B. American farmers planted over 200 million acres with transgenic crops in 2004, a substantial increase from the acreage planted with transgenic crops a decade earlier.
C. American consumers may be unaware that they are eating transgenic foods because of the biotechnology industry’s success in preventing the labeling of these foods.
D. Critics of genetic engineering have been unsuccessful in their attempts to impose bans on transgenic food through the EPA and FDA.
E. As of the writing of the passage, no deaths or other adverse health effects had been documented in connection with the consumption of transgenic foods.


4. The relationship between a conventional potato and a “Bt potato” is most similar to which of the following?

A. The relationship between a conventional automobile and one that has been equipped with a revolutionary new engine technology that allows it to fly.
B. The relationship between a regular hamburger and one that has been made poisonous through the addition of bleach.
C. The relationship between a laptop computer and a similar computer that is twice as fast as the first computer because it has a more powerful central processing unit.
D. A wild chicken and a domesticated chicken that has been bred to gain weight three times faster than a wild chicken.
E. A boiled potato and a baked potato with all the fixings.


5. The second paragraph plays what role in the passage?

A. It presents the first of two arguments discussed in the passage.
B. It suggests that the hypothesis advanced in the first paragraph is incomplete.
C. It refutes an argument and suggests an area for further study, which is discussed in the rest of the passage.
D. It suggests a new way of looking at a topic that differs from the conventional view presented in the first paragraph.
E. It provides background information relevant to the topic discussed in the following paragraphs.


6. The author’s attitude toward transgenic food can best be described as which of the following?

A. Angry and concerned.
B. Accepting and optimistic.
C. Enthusiastically ambivalent.
D. Interested but uncommitted.
E. Hopeful but suspicious.


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Re: Since the 1994 introduction to supermarket shelves of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2018, 15:56
Formatted the Question
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Re: Since the 1994 introduction to supermarket shelves of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2018, 22:26
Can someone help me with the explanation for Q4 OA? I am not sure how we can compare the two!
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New post Updated on: 23 Jun 2018, 05:06
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visheshsahni wrote:
Can someone help me with the explanation for Q4 OA? I am not sure how we can compare the two!


Question # 4

Answer: A

Explanation

This is an applying information question. You have to determine what the relationship is between a conventional potato and a “Bt potato,” and then see which of the answer choices presents a corresponding relationship. From the information in the second paragraph, we know that a Bt potato is a potato that has been modified through a new kind of technology so that it has a potentially useful attribute—it is poisonous to insect pests but not to humans—that is not normally found in potatoes. Answer choice A presents a parallel situation: a car has been modified by technology so that it possesses a potentially useful attribute—the ability to fly—that is not normally encountered in automobiles. This looks like a strong answer, but you need to eliminate the other answer choices. Answer choice B presents a partially parallel situation—an item has been modified so that it is poisonous—but the addition of bleach does not correspond well to the modifying new technology of the Bt potato, and a bleached hamburger, unlike a Bt potato, is a completely useless item. Overall, B is a weaker choice than A. Answer choice C is partially parallel in that the second item may be more useful than the first, but there is no mention that the first was modified to produce the second, and the distinguishing attribute of the second computer, greater speed, is a difference in degree, and does not represent an entirely new attribute. Answer choice D is incorrect on similar grounds; a fatter chicken is just a variant on the old kind of chicken, rather than a chicken with an entirely new attribute. Also, it could be argued that selective breeding, since it is an old technology, is not a good match for the new technology that produced the Bt potato. Answer choice E is a poor choice because boiling and baking simply represent two different ways to prepare a potato; there is no mention of modifying technology or new attributes. Choices B, C, D, and E are all weaker than A, so A is the best choice.

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 22 May 2018, 00:10.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 23 Jun 2018, 05:06, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 22 May 2018, 00:47
SajjadAhmad wrote:
visheshsahni wrote:
Can someone help me with the explanation for Q4 OA? I am not sure how we can compare the two!


Answer: A

Explanation

This is an applying information question. You have to determine what the relationship is between a conventional potato and a “Bt potato,” and then see which of the answer choices presents a corresponding relationship. From the information in the second paragraph, we know that a Bt potato is a potato that has been modified through a new kind of technology so that it has a potentially useful attribute—it is poisonous to insect pests but not to humans—that is not normally found in potatoes. Answer choice A presents a parallel situation: a car has been modified by technology so that it possesses a potentially useful attribute—the ability to fly—that is not normally encountered in automobiles. This looks like a strong answer, but you need to eliminate the other answer choices. Answer choice B presents a partially parallel situation—an item has been modified so that it is poisonous—but the addition of bleach does not correspond well to the modifying new technology of the Bt potato, and a bleached hamburger, unlike a Bt potato, is a completely useless item. Overall, B is a weaker choice than A. Answer choice C is partially parallel in that the second item may be more useful than the first, but there is no mention that the first was modified to produce the second, and the distinguishing attribute of the second computer, greater speed, is a difference in degree, and does not represent an entirely new attribute. Answer choice D is incorrect on similar grounds; a fatter chicken is just a variant on the old kind of chicken, rather than a chicken with an entirely new attribute. Also, it could be argued that selective breeding, since it is an old technology, is not a good match for the new technology that produced the Bt potato. Answer choice E is a poor choice because boiling and baking simply represent two different ways to prepare a potato; there is no mention of modifying technology or new attributes. Choices B, C, D, and E are all weaker than A, so A is the best choice.

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Thank you very much for this. :)
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New post 22 May 2018, 01:09
Can you please provide the answers

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New post 22 May 2018, 01:13
karanoberoi93 wrote:
Can you please provide the answers

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Question #1 OA: D

Question #2 OA: B

Question #3 OA: C

Question #4 OA: A

Question #5 OA: E

Question #6 OA: D

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New post 22 May 2018, 03:38
Hey Sajjad,

Will it be possible for you to provide the OA explanation for Questions 5 and 6?

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New post 16 Jun 2018, 07:32
Can someone explain Q1 and Q6?

For Q1 - I came down to A and D by POE. Can anyone help me further?
For Q4 - I choose C. Can someone explain why not C and why D?

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 06:36
I love how the tag states "short passage".
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New post 22 Jun 2018, 23:36
SajjadAhmad wrote:
visheshsahni wrote:
Can someone help me with the explanation for Q4 OA? I am not sure how we can compare the two!


Answer: A

Explanation

This is an applying information question. You have to determine what the relationship is between a conventional potato and a “Bt potato,” and then see which of the answer choices presents a corresponding relationship. From the information in the second paragraph, we know that a Bt potato is a potato that has been modified through a new kind of technology so that it has a potentially useful attribute—it is poisonous to insect pests but not to humans—that is not normally found in potatoes. Answer choice A presents a parallel situation: a car has been modified by technology so that it possesses a potentially useful attribute—the ability to fly—that is not normally encountered in automobiles. This looks like a strong answer, but you need to eliminate the other answer choices. Answer choice B presents a partially parallel situation—an item has been modified so that it is poisonous—but the addition of bleach does not correspond well to the modifying new technology of the Bt potato, and a bleached hamburger, unlike a Bt potato, is a completely useless item. Overall, B is a weaker choice than A. Answer choice C is partially parallel in that the second item may be more useful than the first, but there is no mention that the first was modified to produce the second, and the distinguishing attribute of the second computer, greater speed, is a difference in degree, and does not represent an entirely new attribute. Answer choice D is incorrect on similar grounds; a fatter chicken is just a variant on the old kind of chicken, rather than a chicken with an entirely new attribute. Also, it could be argued that selective breeding, since it is an old technology, is not a good match for the new technology that produced the Bt potato. Answer choice E is a poor choice because boiling and baking simply represent two different ways to prepare a potato; there is no mention of modifying technology or new attributes. Choices B, C, D, and E are all weaker than A, so A is the best choice.

Hope it Helps



Hi Sajjad,

Could you please provide the explanation for Question 5 & Question 6

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 05:12
Amirfunc wrote:
Hey Sajjad,

Will it be possible for you to provide the OA explanation for Questions 5 and 6?

Regards


menonrit


Question 5

Answer E

This is a standard logical structure question. In your initial reading of the passage, you may have noticed that the second paragraph takes a step back from the controversy mentioned at the end of the first paragraph—which is the chief concern of the last two paragraphs—in order to provide information about how the genetic engineering of food works and to provide an example of a transgenic product. This paragraph cannot be said to present an argument (Answer choice A), suggest that the hypothesis of the first paragraph is incomplete (Answer choice B), refute an argument (Answer choice C), or suggest a new way of looking at something (Answer choice D). The only answer choice that provides a reasonable description of the role of the second paragraph is E; the technical terms and example provided in E are relevant background information for the discussion of transgenic foods in the following two paragraphs.

Question 6

Answer D

This is a tone and style question. You can gauge an author’s attitude by the use of tone words with strong positive or negative connotations. This passage, however, has very little in the way of tone words, so you have to gauge the author’s attitude by the choice of information presented. The lack of overt tone words means that there is no reason to suspect that the author is “angry,” as in answer choice A. On the other hand, the author presents several concerns voiced by critics without refuting them, so the unreservedly positive terms “Accepting and optimistic” in Answer choice B cannot be correct. Answer choice C, “Enthusiastically ambivalent,” may not even be possible; in any event, the author does not seem truly enthusiastic about either of the sides in the argument. Answer choice D, “Interested but uncommitted,” does appear to be an accurate description, because the author is clearly interested enough in the subject to have written the passage, but he or she does not explicitly commit to either side. The terms in answer choice E are too strong in both directions; the author seems somewhat accepting of the developments in agriculture, but does not make any statements that could be characterized as “hopeful.” The author’s decision to enumerate the concerns of critics without fully refuting them suggests that the author could be suspicious, but there is no clear evidence that the author is necessarily suspicious. Answer choice D is the best answer. Note that D is the most moderate of the answer choices; this is characteristic of tone questions. ACT rarely permits the authors of passages to express strong emotions. When you see emotional terms like angry or enthusiastic in answer choices for this type of question, those choices are usually wrong.

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 07:52
can somebody explain Q6?
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New post 23 Jun 2018, 08:49
sumitsrj99 wrote:
can somebody explain Q6?


Question 6

Answer D

This is a tone and style question. You can gauge an author’s attitude by the use of tone words with strong positive or negative connotations. This passage, however, has very little in the way of tone words, so you have to gauge the author’s attitude by the choice of information presented. The lack of overt tone words means that there is no reason to suspect that the author is “angry,” as in answer choice A. On the other hand, the author presents several concerns voiced by critics without refuting them, so the unreservedly positive terms “Accepting and optimistic” in Answer choice B cannot be correct. Answer choice C, “Enthusiastically ambivalent,” may not even be possible; in any event, the author does not seem truly enthusiastic about either of the sides in the argument. Answer choice D, “Interested but uncommitted,” does appear to be an accurate description, because the author is clearly interested enough in the subject to have written the passage, but he or she does not explicitly commit to either side. The terms in answer choice E are too strong in both directions; the author seems somewhat accepting of the developments in agriculture, but does not make any statements that could be characterized as “hopeful.” The author’s decision to enumerate the concerns of critics without fully refuting them suggests that the author could be suspicious, but there is no clear evidence that the author is necessarily suspicious. Answer choice D is the best answer. Note that D is the most moderate of the answer choices; this is characteristic of tone questions. ACT rarely permits the authors of passages to express strong emotions. When you see emotional terms like angry or enthusiastic in answer choices for this type of question, those choices are usually wrong.

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Re: Since the 1994 introduction to supermarket shelves of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2018, 01:04
1
Hope your preparation is going well.
Question 1
ANSWER: D.
A.Talks about how technology is the main key in growing the food, which isn’t the objective of the passage. It is only mentioned in para 1.
B. The passage doesn’t talk about what Americans eat and it doesn’t say that these foods are beneficial in nutrition and cost.
C. The transgenic foods haven’t been proven unsafe YET.
D. This answer choice talks about the criticism that these foods are facing as talked about in the 3rd paragraph and also tells us that despite the criticism these the industry making these foods is successful as suggested in the final paragraph. Correct answer choice.
E. It explains what is biotechnology and the part with hunger and malnutrition in the developing nations is out of scope.
Question 2
ANSWER: B

A. The passage talks about the effect of the modifications on the health of people later.
B. The comparison between transgenic crops and conventional crops regarding resistance to insect pests has not been drawn anywhere in the passage.
C. The loss of small farmers is talked about in the 3rd paragraph end.
D. The passage tells us that not much is known about the after-effects of these crops.
E. The passage mentions that modifications introduced into domesticated crops might spread into wild plant species
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