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# Since the early 1970's, historians have begun to devote

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Since the early 1970's, historians have begun to devote [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2005, 01:06
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Since the early 1970â€™s, historians have begun to devote serious attention to the working class in the United States. Yet while we now have studies of working-class communities and culture, we know remarkably little of worklessness. When historians have paid any attention at all to unemployment, they have focused on the Great Depression of the 1930â€™s.
The narrowness of this perspective ignores the pervasive recessions and joblessness of the previous decades, as Alexander Keyssar shows in his recent book. Examining the period 1870-1920, Keyssar concentrates on Massachusetts, where the historical materials are particularly rich, and the findings applicable to other industrial areas.

The unemployment rates that Keyssar calculates appear to be relatively modest, at least by Great Depression standards: during the worst years, in the 1870â€™s and 1890â€™s, unemployment was around 15 percent. Yet Keyssar rightly understands that a better way to measure the impact of unemployment is to calculate unemployment frequenciesâ€”measuring the percentage of workers who experience any unemployment in the course of a year. Given this perspective, joblessness looms much larger.

Keyssar also scrutinizes unemployment patterns according to skill level, ethnicity, race, age, class, and gender. He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class: those in middle-class and white-collar occupations were far less likely to be unemployed. Yet the impact of unemployment on a specific class was not always the same. Even when dependent on the same trade, adjoining communities could have dramatically different unemployment rates. Keyssar uses these differential rates to help explain a phenomenon that has puzzled historiansâ€”the startlingly high rate of geographical mobility in the nineteenth-century United States. But mobility was not the dominant working-class strategy for coping with unemployment, nor was assistance from private charities or state agencies. Self-help and the help of kin got most workers through jobless spells.

While Keyssar might have spent more time developing the implications of his findings on joblessness for contemporary public policy, his study, in its thorough research and creative use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, is a model of historical analysis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. The passage suggests that before the early 1970â€™s, which of the following was true of the study by historians of the working class in the United States?

(A) The study was infrequent or superficial, or both.
(B) The study was repeatedly criticized for its allegedly narrow focus.
(C) The study relied more on qualitative than quantitative evidence.
(D) The study focused more on the working-class community than on working-class culture.
(E) The study ignored working-class joblessness during the Great Depression.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of Keyssarâ€™s findings concerning unemployment in Massachusetts?

(B) They are possible because Massachusetts has the most easily accessible historical records.

(C) They are the first to mention the existence of high rates of geographical mobility in the nineteenth century.

(D) They are relevant to a historical understanding of the nature of unemployment in other states.

(E) They have caused historians to reconsider the role of the working class during the Great Depression.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Which of the following statements about the unemployment rate during the Great Depression can be inferred from the passage?

(A) It was sometimes higher than 15 percent.
(B) It has been analyzed seriously only since the early 1970â€™s.
(C) It can be calculated more easily than can unemployment frequency.
(D) It was never as high as the rate during the 1870â€™s.
(E) It has been shown by Keyssar to be lower than previously thought.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?
I. The personâ€™s class
II. Where the person lived or worked
III. The personâ€™s age

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III
If you have any questions
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11 Mar 2005, 11:57
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11 Mar 2005, 15:37

For the 4th question, even though the author considers all the factors mentioned, he finds that class is the most important important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts. This is stated in "He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class:...".

Question is asking "According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the [b]important predictors [/b]of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?".

It is mentioned that he scrutinizes the other factors as well, but based on the study he considers/finds that class is the primary factor.
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11 Mar 2005, 18:30
prep_gmat wrote:

For the 4th question, even though the author considers all the factors mentioned, he finds that class is the most important important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts. This is stated in "He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class:...".

Question is asking "According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?".

It is mentioned that he scrutinizes the other factors as well, but based on the study he considers/finds that class is the primary factor.

hmmmm....Had the confusion abt #4...however, the ques asks author considers the important factors not most imp factor, if author didn't think that age etc were imp factors why wud he ever scrutanize those in the first place ?
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11 Mar 2005, 18:40
I think there are 2 aspects here: 1. Unemployment Patterns and 2. Rates of Unemployment, which can shed light on the likelihood of a person being unemployed.

The author considers the other factors to get at unemployment patterns, but the specific question on likelihood of a person being unemployed hinges on the primary factor of class. Thats how I read it, I condiered E as well initially, but felt that it may be a bit too broad.
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11 Mar 2005, 18:54
Hello, guys

Could you tell me how to infer question 1 and 2?

Thanks
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11 Mar 2005, 20:21
ABAC
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11 Mar 2005, 20:22
gosh.. I took 11 minutes... Timing is going to kill me..
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12 Mar 2005, 15:50
I got A D A E

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12 Mar 2005, 16:36
chunjuwu wrote:
Hello, guys

Could you tell me how to infer question 1 and 2?

Thanks

will be happy to, but need to know if I got it right in the first place , what's the OA ?
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13 Mar 2005, 02:22

Now could you help me to solve the question 1 and 2.

Thank you very much .
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13 Mar 2005, 09:33
chunjuwu wrote:

Now could you help me to solve the question 1 and 2.

Thank you very much .

hmmm...got the last one wrong, anyways.....#1 asks abt study before 1970. From the first passage:

"Since the early 1970â€™s, historians have begun to devote serious attention to the working class in the United States. Yet while we now have studies of working-class communities and culture, we know remarkably little of worklessness. When historians have paid any attention at all to unemployment, they have focused on the Great Depression of the 1930â€™s. ".....

u see that it is saying that only since 1970 they started paying any serious attention to the subject, therefore, u can infer prior to that they didn't. Also even after 1970 they still don't know much abt it, so u can infer prior to 1970 the knowledge was more limited as well.....choice "A" comes the closest.

# 2......passage says "Examining the period 1870-1920, Keyssar concentrates on Massachusetts, where the historical materials are particularly rich, and the findings applicable to other industrial areas. ".

I guess u were bet "B" and "D" on this one. But the ques is asking abt unemployment pattern of MA, which has nothing to do with its having rich historical data, the 2nd part of the above para is more relevant as its findings r also applicable to other areas.

Hope this helps, do u have the OE for # 4.
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13 Mar 2005, 11:41
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Guys,

I took exactly 10 minutes to wind up the passage. And I got the answers as A,D, E and A.

While A,D, A (I got into a mire as for - 3) are agreed upon by one and all, I would like all of you to analyze (4). Somehow I am unable to accept D as the answer for (4).

(1)The following stems help us to answer 1.

"Since the early 1970?s, historians have begun to devote serious attention to the working class in the United States. Yet while we now have studies of working-class communities and culture, we know remarkably little of worklessness (So, superficial). When historians have paid any attention at all to unemployment, they have focused on the Great Depression of the 1930?s. (So, infrequent) "

(2)The following stems help us to answer 2.

"Examining the period 1870-1920, Keyssar concentrates on Massachusetts, where the historical materials are particularly rich (Rich does not mean that "the most easily accessible"..This is a perfect trap), and the findings applicable to other industrial areas. (Hence D)"

(3)The following stem is the key to (3)

"The unemployment rates that Keyssar calculates appear to be relatively modest, at least by Great Depression standards: during the worst years, in the 1870?s and 1890?s, unemployment was around 15 percent. "

The Great Depression happened in 1930's. The 1870-90's rate of 15% was modest. It means nothing but A

I got trapped here. It is a perfect A.

(4) For 4 , I will not agree with D. The following stem says that 'class is a primaty criterion'.

"Keyssar also scrutinizes unemployment patterns according to skill level, ethnicity, race, age, class, and gender. He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class:"

The question is "According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the important predictors". Improtant predictor can only be a primary factor. Thus, only class fits the bill. Keyssar considered age but nothing was mentioned about it. So, only I fits the bill and the answer is A.

Do correct me if I am wrong.

chunjuwu wrote:
Since the early 1970?s, historians have begun to devote serious attention to the working class in the United States. Yet while we now have studies of working-class communities and culture, we know remarkably little of worklessness. When historians have paid any attention at all to unemployment, they have focused on the Great Depression of the 1930?s.
The narrowness of this perspective ignores the pervasive recessions and joblessness of the previous decades, as Alexander Keyssar shows in his recent book. Examining the period 1870-1920, Keyssar concentrates on Massachusetts, where the historical materials are particularly rich, and the findings applicable to other industrial areas.

The unemployment rates that Keyssar calculates appear to be relatively modest, at least by Great Depression standards: during the worst years, in the 1870?s and 1890?s, unemployment was around 15 percent. Yet Keyssar rightly understands that a better way to measure the impact of unemployment is to calculate unemployment frequencies?measuring the percentage of workers who experience any unemployment in the course of a year. Given this perspective, joblessness looms much larger.

Keyssar also scrutinizes unemployment patterns according to skill level, ethnicity, race, age, class, and gender. He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class: those in middle-class and white-collar occupations were far less likely to be unemployed. Yet the impact of unemployment on a specific class was not always the same. Even when dependent on the same trade, adjoining communities could have dramatically different unemployment rates. Keyssar uses these differential rates to help explain a phenomenon that has puzzled historians?the startlingly high rate of geographical mobility in the nineteenth-century United States. But mobility was not the dominant working-class strategy for coping with unemployment, nor was assistance from private charities or state agencies. Self-help and the help of kin got most workers through jobless spells.

While Keyssar might have spent more time developing the implications of his findings on joblessness for contemporary public policy, his study, in its thorough research and creative use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, is a model of historical analysis.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. The passage suggests that before the early 1970?s, which of the following was true of the study by historians of the working class in the United States?

(A) The study was infrequent or superficial, or both.
(B) The study was repeatedly criticized for its allegedly narrow focus.
(C) The study relied more on qualitative than quantitative evidence.
(D) The study focused more on the working-class community than on working-class culture.
(E) The study ignored working-class joblessness during the Great Depression.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of Keyssar?s findings concerning unemployment in Massachusetts?

(B) They are possible because Massachusetts has the most easily accessible historical records.

(C) They are the first to mention the existence of high rates of geographical mobility in the nineteenth century.

(D) They are relevant to a historical understanding of the nature of unemployment in other states.

(E) They have caused historians to reconsider the role of the working class during the Great Depression.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Which of the following statements about the unemployment rate during the Great Depression can be inferred from the passage?

(A) It was sometimes higher than 15 percent.
(B) It has been analyzed seriously only since the early 1970?s.
(C) It can be calculated more easily than can unemployment frequency.
(D) It was never as high as the rate during the 1870?s.
(E) It has been shown by Keyssar to be lower than previously thought.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?
I. The person?s class
II. Where the person lived or worked
III. The person?s age

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III

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13 Mar 2005, 12:58
I agree with mallelac on 4 .
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13 Mar 2005, 18:44
1. The passage suggests that before the early 1970â€™s, which of the following was true of the study by historians of the working class in the United States?
Needs to go back to find 1970. And upon reread the first sentence we know that historians started to study working class since 1970, so before 1970 they didn't do much study on this at all. Therefore A.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of Keyssarâ€™s findings concerning unemployment in Massachusetts?
"Keyssar concentrates on Massachusetts, where the historical materials are particularly rich, and the findings applicable to other industrial areas."
Obviously it means that his findings is applicable to other states. Therefore D.

3. Which of the following statements about the unemployment rate during the Great Depression can be inferred from the passage?

It says the unemployment rate before GD was around 15% and was moderate by GD standard. It must mean that GD was higher than 15%, therefore A.

4. According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?
I. The personâ€™s class
II. Where the person lived or worked
III. The personâ€™s age

"He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class: ... Yet the impact of unemployment on a specific class was not always the same. Even when dependent on the same trade, adjoining communities could have dramatically different unemployment rates. "
We got two factors here. Class and location.

Therefore I and II, in other words (C).
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13 Mar 2005, 20:15
Adjoining communities may be in the same location. Thus, I donot think location is either stated or even implied. If the answer were 'the community in which he lived', it would make lot of sense.

Also, look at the stem - "Even when dependent on the same trade, adjoining communities could have dramatically different unemployment rates. Keyssar uses these differential rates to help explain a phenomenon that has puzzled historians?the startlingly high rate of geographical mobility in the nineteenth-century United States. But mobility was not the dominant working-class strategy for coping with unemployment, nor was assistance from private charities or state agencies. Self-help and the help of kin got most workers through jobless spells.
"

Keyssar uses these differential rates to explain the startlingly high rate of geographical mobility in the nineteenth-century United States. This implies that the communities lived in different places. However, his considering it important was nowhere implied in the above statement. His rather downplaying the importance of mobility can be noticed in the stem ' But mobility was not the dominant working-class strategy for coping with unemployment'.

So, C may not be the answer.

HongHu wrote:
1. The passage suggests that before the early 1970â€™s, which of the following was true of the study by historians of the working class in the United States?
Needs to go back to find 1970. And upon reread the first sentence we know that historians started to study working class since 1970, so before 1970 they didn't do much study on this at all. Therefore A.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of Keyssarâ€™s findings concerning unemployment in Massachusetts?
"Keyssar concentrates on Massachusetts, where the historical materials are particularly rich, and the findings applicable to other industrial areas."
Obviously it means that his findings is applicable to other states. Therefore D.

3. Which of the following statements about the unemployment rate during the Great Depression can be inferred from the passage?

It says the unemployment rate before GD was around 15% and was moderate by GD standard. It must mean that GD was higher than 15%, therefore A.

4. According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the following to be among the important predictors of the likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?
I. The personâ€™s class
II. Where the person lived or worked
III. The personâ€™s age

"He finds that rates of joblessness differed primarily according to class: ... Yet the impact of unemployment on a specific class was not always the same. Even when dependent on the same trade, adjoining communities could have dramatically different unemployment rates. "
We got two factors here. Class and location.

Therefore I and II, in other words (C).

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13 Mar 2005, 21:25
Well, I would interpret different communities as living in different places within the state. He went to quite some extent to illustrate this point. The point that he doesn't believe moving is the most important method for people who are unemployed to cope with the umemployment, doesn't discount his idea that different communities show different unemployment rates.
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13 Mar 2005, 21:38
I agree with everything you have stated. But, no where it is mentioned or implied that he considered it important.

He explained at length because the point deserved some explanation.

HongHu wrote:
Well, I would interpret different communities as living in different places within the state. He went to quite some extent to illustrate this point. The point that he doesn't believe moving is the most important method for people who are unemployed to cope with the umemployment, doesn't discount his idea that different communities show different unemployment rates.

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13 Mar 2005, 21:52
Hmmm Ok let's look at it this way. If we were to predict the likelihood of a particular person being unemployed, wouldn't you say that getting to know which community he lived would help us to do the estimation according to the author?
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13 Mar 2005, 23:15
Sorry, guys

I made a mistake. The answer of the last question is C.

Also, thank you for your explanation.
13 Mar 2005, 23:15

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