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# Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas

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Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 03 Oct 2019, 21:50
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Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land masses, the great variety of plants in Hawaii must be a result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds, a process that requires both a method of transport and an equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area.

There is some dispute about the method of transport involved. Some biologists argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii. Yet the results of flotation experiments and the low temperatures of air currents cast doubt on these hypotheses. More probable is bird transport, either externally, by accidental attachment of the seeds to feathers, or internally, by the swallowing of fruit and subsequent excretion of the seeds. While it is likely that fewer varieties of plant seeds have reached Hawaii externally than internally, more varieties are known to be adapted to external than to internal transport.
The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) discussing different approaches biologists have taken to testing theories about the distribution of plants in Hawaii
(B) discussing different theories about the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii
(C) discussing the extent to which air currents are responsible for the dispersal of plant seeds to Hawaii
(D) resolving a dispute about the adaptability of plant seeds to bird transport
(E) resolving a dispute about the ability of birds to carry plant seeds long distances

Spoiler: :: OA
B

The author mentions the results of flotation experiments on plant seeds most probably in order to

(A) support the claim that the distribution of plants in Hawaii is the result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds
(B) lend credibility to the thesis that air currents provide a method of transport for plant seeds to Hawaii
(C) suggest that the long-distance dispersal of seeds is a process that requires long periods of time
(D) challenge the claim that ocean currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii
(E) refute the claim that Hawaiian flora evolved independently from flora in other parts of the world

Spoiler: :: OA
D

It can be inferred from information in the passage that the existence in alpine regions of Hawaii of a plant species that also grows in the southwestern United States would justify which of the following conclusions?

(A) The ecology of the southwestern United States is similar in important respects to the ecology of alpine regions of Hawaii.
(B) There are ocean currents that flow from the southwestern United States to Hawaii.
(C) The plant species discovered in Hawaii must have traveled from the southwestern United States only very recently.
(D) The plant species discovered in Hawaii reached there by attaching to the feathers of birds migrating from the southwestern United States.
(E) The plant species discovered in Hawaii is especially well adapted to transport over long distances.

Spoiler: :: OA
A

The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?

(A) Why does successful long-distance dispersal of plant seeds require an equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area?
(B) Why are more varieties of plant seeds adapted to external rather than to internal bird transport?
(C) What varieties of plant seeds are birds that fly long distances most likely to swallow?
(D) What is a reason for accepting the long-distance dispersal of plant seeds as an explanation for the origin of Hawaiian flora?
(E) What evidence do biologists cite to argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii?

Spoiler: :: OA
D

_________________

Originally posted by carcass on 09 Jan 2019, 02:48.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 03 Oct 2019, 21:50, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (799).
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Re: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2019, 03:31
5
1
3 mins 9 secs and all correct. Fairly straightforward and small passage.

Summary:
Since Hawaii is not directly connected to any land mass, plants there must have got there due to long-distance dispersal of seeds, which requires both transport & equivalence in ecology in Hawaii & places where the seeds are coming from. The author goes on to discard two theories of transport ( by ocean currents and air currents) and goes on to credit the long-distance dispersal to birds ( internal by eating fruits and excreting the seeds and external by getting stuck to feathers) who help the process.

The central idea of the passage is required to answer this question which has been emboldened in the summary.
The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) discussing different approaches biologists have taken to testing theories about the distribution of plants in Hawaii Testing theories is not undertaken. Discard.
(B) discussing different theories about the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii Bingo - Different theories are discussed in the passage.
(C) discussing the extent to which air currents are responsible for the dispersal of plant seeds to Hawaii Too specific to be the main idea of the passage. Discard.
(D) resolving a dispute about the adaptability of plant seeds to bird transport There is no dispute underlined in the passage. Discard.
(E) resolving a dispute about the ability of birds to carry plant seeds long distances Discard for the reason stated above.

Detail question, straightforward.
The author mentions the results of flotation experiments on plant seeds most probably in order to

(A) support the claim that the distribution of plants in Hawaii is the result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds TRAP - a lot of words from the passage but put out of context here. Discard.
(B) lend credibility to the thesis that air currents provide a method of transport for plant seeds to Hawaii Nah. Flotation exercise was to disprove ocean current theory
(C) suggest that the long-distance dispersal of seeds is a process that requires long periods of time. Laughably irrelevant to the question. Discard.
(D) challenge the claim that ocean currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii Bingo - exactly what we are looking for.
(E) refute the claim that Hawaiian flora evolved independently from flora in other parts of the world Out of scope of mentioned experiments. Discard.

Inference type requiring application of info from passage to an external new situation
It can be inferred from information in the passage that the existence in alpine regions of Hawaii of a plant species that also grows in the southwestern United States would justify which of the following conclusions?

(A) The ecology of the southwestern United States is similar in important respects to the ecology of alpine regions of Hawaii. BINGO - verbatim from the first paragraph of the passage
(B) There are ocean currents that flow from the southwestern United States to Hawaii. Absurd to even consider this. Discard.
(C) The plant species discovered in Hawaii must have traveled from the southwestern United States only very recently. Very recently? Irrelevant to discussion and cannot be inferred. Discard.
(D) The plant species discovered in Hawaii reached there by attaching to the feathers of birds migrating from the southwestern United States. A possibility but for inference we have to give 100% support for the option and this is not the case here. Discard.
(E) The plant species discovered in Hawaii is especially well adapted to transport over long distances. Discard - not related to the specific question at hand.

Again a question related to the main idea of the passage. Trickiest of the lot.
The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?

(A) Why does successful long-distance dispersal of plant seeds require an equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area? TRAP - two ideas from the passage but mutually unrelated. Discard.
(B) Why are more varieties of plant seeds adapted to external rather than to internal bird transport? No information is given as to "why" this happens but this fact is mentioned. So another trap. Discard.
(C) What varieties of plant seeds are birds that fly long distances most likely to swallow? The varieties are not mentioned. Discard.
(D) What is a reason for accepting the long-distance dispersal of plant seeds as an explanation for the origin of Hawaiian flora? BINGO - even if this isn't apparent at first sight - the first line of the passage talks about why we need this theory to explain the diverse flora of Hawaii - it is not connected to any other land mass directly.
(E) What evidence do biologists cite to argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii? No evidence is given in support of the two theories. Discard.

Hope my explanations are helpful.
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“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)
##### General Discussion
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Re: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2019, 03:37
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Top Contributor
Well done.

try the next one I posted.

Please do not forget to give kudo.
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Re: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2019, 03:41
1
I'm on it.

Great passages carcass, I am guessing they are from the GRE universe?

Thanks for posting.

carcass wrote:
Well done.

try the next one I posted.

Please do not forget to give kudo.

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“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)
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Re: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas  [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2019, 20:38

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions

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Re: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas   [#permalink] 12 Jan 2019, 20:38
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# Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land mas

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