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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant

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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2017, 21:15
librrra wrote:
I feel like there should be an additional information in A: how do we know if the bacteria in meat actually transmits to humans? Are we assuming it as a common knowledge? Thank you


Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
Basically, as per the reasoning from the argument, the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments.

Now, as per option A, Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed, this implies that resistant bacteria will be surviving in the livestock. In other words, if livestock get antibiotics, perhaps will harbor resistant bacteria. Now, if this livestock is consumed by the humans in the form of meat, the resistant bacteria will be automatically transmitted in humans. This is general common sense, there is no assumption of any common knowledge.

For example, if you are eating any infected food, automatically you are getting infected indirectly through that infected food.
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 11:09
Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals. -Correct. Bacteria become resistant before even entering human body.
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics. -Out of scope
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality. -This weakens the argument by saying that the cause is not bacteria, but the cause is related to environment in which people live.
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria. -Out of scope
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat. -Out of scope
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 20:10
Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

For reference, I narrowed down to A&B, chose "A" at the last second. Very tricky. See my reasoning below

CONCLUSION: most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat (as opposed to via prescription antibiotics)

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
- Meat that consumers are eating are "infected" with antibiotics. The idea is producers are speeding up maturity process to slaughter animals for food. Theoretically to increase the amount of meat that consumers can eat
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.
- I didn't like this b/c of "food poisoning". We don't know consumers got food poisoning at all. Also, note the difference between "ANTIBIOTICS" & "PRESCRIPTION ANTIBIOTICS"
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.
- Quality of meat = irrelevant
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
- least = extreme language. out.
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.
- opposite of what we want to go for.

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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2018, 22:28
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noboru wrote:
Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.

(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.

(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.

(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.

(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.


give rise to something = to cause something to happen or exist

If livestock are routinely fed antibiotics, as choice A states, meat from livestock is likely to contain the resistant bacteria, since any routine of antibiotics can result in resistance bacteria. Thus, choice A is the best answer.

How cases of food poisoning are treated (choice B) fails to indicate whether the infection bacteria are resistant bacteria.

Choice C suggests that meat consumption is not the primary culprit for the high incidence of resistant bacteria.

Choice D tends to support the competing hypothesis that prescription antibiotics are responsible.

Choice E asserts that livestock farmers claim that the hypothesis is false, but it provides no basis for evaluating the truth of this claim.
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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant   [#permalink] 14 Mar 2018, 22:28

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