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# Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in

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Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2008, 20:51
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Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

(A) more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because

(B) orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from

(C) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from

(D) there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of

(E) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 14 Oct 2017, 03:22, edited 6 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2008, 23:10
i think it is B --> have become more and more littered rather than became littered (which is past). this is something which is still happenning.

Anybody knows whats the correct answer?

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2008, 00:38
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Sentence has modifier issue and verb tense issue
A – more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because [Modifier issue – “Since the start of the space age” incorrectly modifies more and more, missing clause structure - eliminate it]
B – orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from [Present perfect tense – hold it]
C – orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from [But this is happening event – Present perfect tense is preferred – eliminate it]
D – there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of [Modification issue – eliminate it]
E – there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with [Modification issue – eliminate it]

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2009, 22:07
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158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

Last edited by kman on 07 Feb 2009, 09:43, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2009, 22:24
C/D/E - out
I would pick B over A. ( A just sounds off- and due to often because..)

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2009, 01:37
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A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because "conj needs to follow a sentence"
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from (holding)
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from (tense wrong)
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of (there have been, awkward)
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with (there had been, awkward, tense wrong)

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2009, 01:42
kman wrote:
158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

Please, underline the apropriate part

Thanks

[Edited]

Yes, agree with B

The use of since requires present perfect, so C and E out.

A and D have "littering" as subject, which makes them akward

B has orbits as subject

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Last edited by JohnLewis1980 on 08 Feb 2009, 01:49, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2011, 21:34
OA is B.

A. "because" will require a clause after it --> get rid of A.
Also "because" here doesn't convey the right meaning. Using "because" means "the intentional discarding of lens caps..." led to littering. In fact, "the intentional discarding of lens caps.." is littering itself.
--> also get rid of D.

"Since the start of the space age" --> verb tense should be present perfect --> get rid of C, E
Also in C, "resulting from" cannot be used as an adverbial phrase. It needs a noun.

B is the answer.

You can see the problem being vivisected in this thread:

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sin ... ring-t1639.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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18 Jan 2012, 07:58
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B and C has corrct modifier. orbit is being modified. C makes incorrect tense.

So B.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2012, 04:41
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A- creates run on
B-
C- usage of "since" implies continuity. Hence "have become" is required.
D & E- incorrect usage of "there"
There is used for two reasons:
i) to point to a location
II) to make an assertion

Hope that helps.
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2014, 21:25
kman wrote:
158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

Please attach the OA. According to the below, it is B.
http://www.beatthegmat.com/orbits-gprep-t20218-15.html

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 04:04
kman wrote:
158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

can anyone please explain why choice D is incorrect?

thanks!
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 04:38
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anujag24 wrote:
kman wrote:
158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

can anyone please explain why choice D is incorrect?

thanks!

Hi anujag24,

There are two errors in option B:

1. The phrase “littering of orbits near Earth” is incorrect. “Littering” is happening in the nearby orbits of Earth, but it is certainly not of “orbits”. We can say the orbits have become littered, but “littering of orbits” doesn’t convey the same meaning.
2. Also, the non-underlined portion of the sentence doesn’t tell us about the reason of the littering. It is telling the ways (or the sources) of littering. So, “because of” is incorrectly used here. This error can be corrected by using “from”.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 06:16
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anujag24 wrote:
can anyone please explain why choice D is incorrect?

At the very least, there is a subject-verb disagreement issue in D. It should have been: there has been more and more littering of orbits near Earth....
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 08:51
egmat wrote:
anujag24 wrote:
kman wrote:
158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

can anyone please explain why choice D is incorrect?

thanks!

Hi anujag24,

There are two errors in option B:

1. The phrase “littering of orbits near Earth” is incorrect. “Littering” is happening in the nearby orbits of Earth, but it is certainly not of “orbits”. We can say the orbits have become littered, but “littering of orbits” doesn’t convey the same meaning.
2. Also, the non-underlined portion of the sentence doesn’t tell us about the reason of the littering. It is telling the ways (or the sources) of littering. So, “because of” is incorrectly used here. This error can be corrected by using “from”.

Hope this helps!
Deepak

hello deepak,

I understood the first point,however, the second point is still not clear to me. Can you throw some light ?

thanks Anuj!
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 02:33
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Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

Usage of "Because"

Match was delayed because rain was pouring heavily.

So the construction of Because is :
1) Because -> Modifies a clause.
2) Because -> Takes a clause.

Difference between "Because of" and "Due to"

Delay in the match was due to heavy rain

So the construction of "Due to"
1) Due to modifies noun or noun phrase (here Delay)
2) Due to takes noun or noun phrase

Match was delayed because of heavy rain

So the construction of "Because of"
1) "Because of" modifies Clause
2) "Because of" takes noun or noun phrase

So in Option A) can be eliminated on the basis of that.

Present Perfect tense

Present perfect tense should be used when an event has occurred in the past and either the event or its effect is continuing till now.
"Since" is a dead give away that we have to use present perfect tense.

Hence option C) and option E) is eliminated

Meaning
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of

There is no littering of orbits but we have littering of different objects in the orbits.

hence D) is eliminated.

Hence Option B) is correct
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2016, 12:56
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kman wrote:
158. Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.
Very first thought after looking at the sentence that the presence of 'Since' indicates present perfect tense. Boiled the choices to A, B and D.

Now before reaching at the answer, let's look at the mistakes in other choices.

A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because

often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers. The sentence is missing something after 'because'

IMO, 'Since the start of the space age' must be followed by the most important thing that we want to talk about- orbits near earth.

B. orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
SV agreement is correct. 'from' indicates the reason of orbits being littered

C. orbits near Earth become littered more and more, often resulting from
Present perfect is absent.
Presence of present tense 'become'
IMO, 'resulting' is unnecessary here.

D. there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
'There' must be used for a place.
SV does not agree- 'have been' with 'littering'

E. there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with
'There' must be used for a place.
Past perfect is not required.
'with' represents 'association'; however, we are looking for the reason. Hence,'with' usage is not correct.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2016, 06:04
My approach to solve this question :

1. Look at the split because/from/with : the most apt split is from : Hence we are left with options B & C
2. We need the verb phrase have littered (present perfect tense), hence correct option is B

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2016, 21:24
Choice A doesn't convey the right meaning. If I say that littering occurred 'because of' the intentional discarding of those items, that implies that the intentional discarding WASN'T the actual littering. Instead, it means that the intentional discarding set into motion a chain of events that LED to the littering.

For instance:
'The U.S. entered World War II because of the bombing of Pearl Harbor.' -- Correct: the bombing was an event that then LED to the U.S. decision to enter the war, but did not constitute the war itself.

'The U.S. destroyed Hiroshima because of dropping a nuclear bomb.' -- Incorrect: this sentence wrongly implies that the dropping of the bomb LED to some future event in which the U.S. destroyed Hiroshima, rather than that the dropping of the bomb WAS the actual event that destroyed Hiroshima.

In #C there's no NOUN that serves as the focus of the modifier 'resulting from...' (an adjective-type modifier). It's intended to modify the general idea that the orbits have become littered, but there's no NOUN that signifies the littering.

#D has the same problem as #A ('because' is wrong).

ONE MORE IMPORTANT TAKE AWAY: RESULTING FROM

"resulting from" can only be used to describe nouns i.e. adjective modifiers. It can't be used as an adverbial modifier.

If you see comma + 'resulting from', you can eliminate it.

You can have it as an adjective modifier, without a comma - as in the following sentence:
The flooding resulting from the abnormally strong storms had left six inches of standing water in the street.
Note that the boldface is an adjective modifier, modifying 'flooding’. If something results from 'X', then 'X' happens FIRST. if you see comma + 'resulting from', you can eliminate it.

You can have it as an adjective modifier, without a comma - as in the following sentence:
The flooding resulting from the abnormally strong storms had left six inches of standing water in the street.
Note that the boldface is an adjective modifier, modifying 'flooding'.

...but its meaning clashes fundamentally with the usage of comma + __ing.
If something results from 'X', then 'X' happens FIRST.

Source: Ron Purewals Explanation.
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in   [#permalink] 30 Aug 2016, 21:24

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