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# Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes

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Manager
Joined: 11 Jul 2012
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Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2012, 15:14
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OG16 CR5
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is planning to market a wastewater purification system that works on the same principle. The process works only when temperatures are cold, however, so municipalities using it will still need to maintain a conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems have not been fully successful in killing bacteria at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a problem of water shortage.

Edit: formatted
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2096
Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2013, 03:37
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betterscore wrote:
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that
freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because
the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is
planning to market a wastewater purification system
that works on the same principle. The process works
only when temperatures are cold, however, so
municipalities using it will still need to maintain a
conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest
grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy
QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to
maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be
removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater
purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems
have not been fully successful in killing bacteria
at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in
use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires
relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a
problem of water shortage.

Hi,

Let's first understand what QuickFreeze (QF) water-purification system is going to do:
QF is going to kill bacteria at cold temperatures only.
Since this will work only at cold temperatures, municipalities will need to keep conventional water purification systems also.

Now, it is given that municipalities will have conventional water-purification systems, whether they buy QF or not. What would make the municipalities buy QF?

They will buy it only if QF offers something, which conventional systems don't offer.

Now, as we go through the options, we see only option C provides an advantage that QF has over conventional systems. Thus, this is the correct choice.

However, let's also consider option A and B, since some of us have chosen these as the answer choices:

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater. - But do conventional systems remove bacteria from wastewater? If they do, why would municipalities buy QF systems?

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced. - Clearly, QF systems can't replace old conventional systems, as is clearly stated. This option statement also doesn't provide any reason for municipalities to buy QF, along with conventional systems.

Hope this helps

Feel free to ask in case of any queries.

Meanwhile, dont forget to attend the SC session on Saturday. Please find the link below:

Regards,
Chiranjeev
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Manager
Joined: 31 Aug 2011
Posts: 213
Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2012, 10:01
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B old system need replacement . municipality can purchase any not imp this new one

C the conventional one does not work in winter. . we need a new one a different one for winter so this one can do the job
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Joined: 03 Aug 2012
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2013, 22:32
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Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that
freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because
the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is
planning to market a wastewater purification system
that works on the same principle. The process works
only when temperatures are cold, however, so
municipalities using it will still need to maintain a
conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest
grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy
QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to
maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be
removed from wastewater.

IMO , this is correct as the QF kills only bacteria we need CONV systems to kill other impurities found in water.So this statement clears that we need CONV system for other impurities and QF for bacteria.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater
purification systems that need to be replaced.

Doesn't tell why we need to keep CONV systems

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems
have not been fully successful in killing bacteria
at cold temperatures.

This tells us that CONV systems are unable to kill bacteria but doesn't tell whether we need to keep CONV systems or not

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in
use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires
relatively little maintenance.
OOS

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a
problem of water shortage.

OOS

Reasoning as mentioned above, need a discussion on this so that we can reach consensus.

Rgds,
saurabh
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2013, 02:39
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egmat wrote:
betterscore wrote:
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that
freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because
the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is
planning to market a wastewater purification system
that works on the same principle. The process works
only when temperatures are cold, however, so
municipalities using it will still need to maintain a
conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest
grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy
QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to
maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be
removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater
purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems
have not been fully successful in killing bacteria
at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in
use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires
relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a
problem of water shortage.

Hi,

Let's first understand what QuickFreeze (QF) water-purification system is going to do:
QF is going to kill bacteria at cold temperatures only.
Since this will work only at cold temperatures, municipalities will need to keep conventional water purification systems also.

Now, it is given that municipalities will have conventional water-purification systems, whether they buy QF or not. What would make the municipalities buy QF?

They will buy it only if QF offers something, which conventional systems don't offer.

Now, as we go through the options, we see only option C provides an advantage that QF has over conventional systems. Thus, this is the correct choice.

However, let's also consider option A and B, since some of us have chosen these as the answer choices:

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater. - But do conventional systems remove bacteria from wastewater? If they do, why would municipalities buy QF systems?

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced. - Clearly, QF systems can't replace old conventional systems, as is clearly stated. This option statement also doesn't provide any reason for municipalities to buy QF, along with conventional systems.

Hope this helps

Feel free to ask in case of any queries.

Meanwhile, dont forget to attend the SC session on Saturday. Please find the link below:

Regards,
Chiranjeev

In C ,What is the need of maintaining a conventional system when the QF is eliminating all the bacteria ?

If option C is the answer it is contradicting the question stem,in my opinion.
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2013, 23:00
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Expert's post
pavanpaone wrote:

In C ,What is the need of maintaining a conventional system when the QF is eliminating all the bacteria ?

Look at the last statement of the passage:

"he process works only when temperatures are cold, however, so municipalities using it will still need to maintain a conventional system"

pavanpaone wrote:
If option C is the answer it is contradicting the question stem,in my opinion.

How does it contradict the question stem?

Before you respond, please remember that this is an official question and by thinking that this is incorrect in one way or the other, we just mean that we are not able to understand it. The official questions ARE ALWAYS CORRECT.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2012, 15:32
IMO (B); need OE or expert's suggestion.
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2012, 22:51
thevenus wrote:
IMO (B); need OE or expert's suggestion.

I am not an expert but may be my 2 cents may help you get the point of the argument.

What are we looking for ? We are looking for a reason to buy QUICK freezer at first place when they have conventional system.

B :- It tells us that we have old QUICK FREEZER that needs to be repllaced but it does not tell us that why the municipality will but it when they have conventional system

C;- It correctly tells the reason why we need a Quick freezer in winter season.

HTH
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2012, 01:26
C is the best choice. It gives a clear reason for municipalities to buy this system despite having the conv one.
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Location: Zimbabwe
Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2013, 20:08
Just to throw in my 2 cents, I think C works because the two systems can be used alternatively. One will be used in cold weather and the other in warm weather.
A weakens the argument.
B doesn't tell us anything about killing of bacteria.
D out of scope.
E out of scope.
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Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1414
Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2013, 06:42
egmat wrote:
betterscore wrote:
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that
freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because
the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is
planning to market a wastewater purification system
that works on the same principle. The process works
only when temperatures are cold, however, so
municipalities using it will still need to maintain a
conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest
grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy
QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to
maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be
removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater
purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems
have not been fully successful in killing bacteria
at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in
use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires
relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a
problem of water shortage.

Hi,

Let's first understand what QuickFreeze (QF) water-purification system is going to do:
QF is going to kill bacteria at cold temperatures only.
Since this will work only at cold temperatures, municipalities will need to keep conventional water purification systems also.

Now, it is given that municipalities will have conventional water-purification systems, whether they buy QF or not. What would make the municipalities buy QF?

They will buy it only if QF offers something, which conventional systems don't offer.

Now, as we go through the options, we see only option C provides an advantage that QF has over conventional systems. Thus, this is the correct choice.

However, let's also consider option A and B, since some of us have chosen these as the answer choices:

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater. - But do conventional systems remove bacteria from wastewater? If they do, why would municipalities buy QF systems?

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced. - Clearly, QF systems can't replace old conventional systems, as is clearly stated. This option statement also doesn't provide any reason for municipalities to buy QF, along with conventional systems.

Hope this helps

Feel free to ask in case of any queries.

Meanwhile, dont forget to attend the SC session on Saturday. Please find the link below:

Regards,
Chiranjeev

Thank you e gmat. I am e gmat customer.
the process you do before going to answer choices is prethinking. I think that the success on cr is based on this prethinking. we need to do something before going to answer choices. we need to be armed with something before looking at the answer choices which are traps.
your prethinking is great.

however, the following question from gmatprep is hard for us to prethink an assumption. pls help us prethink . thank you.
press-secretary-our-critics-claim-that-the-president-s-16458.html

Press secretary: Our critics claim that the President's recent highway project cancellations demonstrate a vindictive desire to punish legislative districts controlled by opposition parties. They offer as evidence the fact that 90% of the projects cancelled were in such districts. But all of the cancelled projects had been identified as wasteful in a report written by respected nonpartisan auditors. So the President's choice was clearly motivated by sound budgetary policy, not partisan politics.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the press secretary's argument depends?
A. Canceling highway projects was not the only way for the President to punish legislative districts controlled by opposition parties.
B. The scheduled highway projects identified as wasteful in the report were not mostly projects in districts controlled by the President's party.
C. The number of projects cancelled was a significant proportion of all the highway projects that were to be undertaken by the government in the near future.
D. Nonpartisan auditors were President's friends.
E. Reports by nonpartisan auditors are not generally regarded by the opposition parties as a source of objective assessment of government projects.
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 01:50
egmat wrote:
pavanpaone wrote:

In C ,What is the need of maintaining a conventional system when the QF is eliminating all the bacteria ?

Look at the last statement of the passage:

"he process works only when temperatures are cold, however, so municipalities using it will still need to maintain a conventional system"

pavanpaone wrote:
If option C is the answer it is contradicting the question stem,in my opinion.

How does it contradict the question stem?

Before you respond, please remember that this is an official question and by thinking that this is incorrect in one way or the other, we just mean that we are not able to understand it. The official questions ARE ALWAYS CORRECT.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

As per my knowledge there r questions in official gmat which are ambiguous in nature.

The only point on which I said C is ambiguous because the CR clearly mentioned that if QF should be used ,it should be used along with the conventional purification system.My question is what is the use Conventional purification when QF is doing the whole purification?

If the option reworded as " QF is used during cold temperature and during hot temperatures QF is replaced with conventional system" then the option is apt according to the info given in the CR i.e QF only works in the cold temperature.

In this type of ambiguous que I usually go with POE.

I hope you understood what I mean to say.
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 02:12
pavanpaone wrote:
As per my knowledge there r questions in official gmat which are ambiguous in nature.

It might be true but even if it is so, it applies to only around 1% of the questions. However, this knowledge is dangerous since you may apply this knowledge to every CR question you are not able to understand. So, you should be very very careful when you use this knowledge to challenge official questions.

pavanpaone wrote:
The only point on which I said C is ambiguous because the CR clearly mentioned that if QF should be used ,it should be used along with the conventional purification system.My question is what is the use Conventional purification when QF is doing the whole purification?

The point is that QF works at cold temperatures only. So, you need another system that would work at not-so-cold temperatures. For example: a lot of air conditioners work only during summers when they lower down the room temperature; during winters, you need heaters to make the room temperature moderate. It does not mean that either air conditioners or heaters are not required. Both are required at different times.

pavanpaone wrote:
If the option reworded as " QF is used during cold temperature and during hot temperatures QF is replaced with conventional system" then the option is apt according to the info given in the CR i.e QF only works in the cold temperature.

In this type of ambiguous que I usually go with POE.

I hope you understood what I mean to say.

The option statement need not be reworded. Rather, the rewording you are suggesting does not present any problem with using conventional systems during cold weather. How does this reworded option statement make you believe that the municipalities will buy QF?

-Chiranjeev
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 02:35
egmat wrote:
pavanpaone wrote:
As per my knowledge there r questions in official gmat which are ambiguous in nature.

It might be true but even if it is so, it applies to only around 1% of the questions. However, this knowledge is dangerous since you may apply this knowledge to every CR question you are not able to understand. So, you should be very very careful when you use this knowledge to challenge official questions.

pavanpaone wrote:
The only point on which I said C is ambiguous because the CR clearly mentioned that if QF should be used ,it should be used along with the conventional purification system.My question is what is the use Conventional purification when QF is doing the whole purification?

The point is that QF works at cold temperatures only. So, you need another system that would work at not-so-cold temperatures. For example: a lot of air conditioners work only during summers when they lower down the room temperature; during winters, you need heaters to make the room temperature moderate. It does not mean that either air conditioners or heaters are not required. Both are required at different times.

pavanpaone wrote:
If the option reworded as " QF is used during cold temperature and during hot temperatures QF is replaced with conventional system" then the option is apt according to the info given in the CR i.e QF only works in the cold temperature.

In this type of ambiguous que I usually go with POE.

I hope you understood what I mean to say.

The option statement need not be reworded. Rather, the rewording you are suggesting does not present any problem with using conventional systems during cold weather. How does this reworded option statement make you believe that the municipalities will buy QF?

-Chiranjeev

Actually I face this type of issue very rarely.

The rewording(May be my rewording is not upto the mark) I suggested about option C will be be apt. QF is used during winter and conventional will be used during summer i.e municipalities will buy the QF for better purification during winter and they have to use Conventional purifier during summer since no better purifier for summer is available.
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2013, 15:17
Can someone layout what is the premise, background, conclusion, etc?
Senior Manager
Joined: 06 Aug 2011
Posts: 400
Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2013, 10:59
betterscore wrote:

Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that
freezes immediately on contact with cold air.

Because
the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is
planning to market a wastewater purification system
that works on the same principle. The process works
only when temperatures are cold, however, so

municipalities using it will still need to maintain a
conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest
grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy
QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to
maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be
removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater
purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems
have not been fully successful in killing bacteria
at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in
use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires
relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a
problem of water shortage.

grey one is the main conclustion. green one is also conclusion bt not main conclustion. others are premises
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2014, 08:57
WE NEED A REASON TO BUY THE NEW SYSTEM......
IT COULD BE ......
1. MORE EFFECTIVE IN A CERTAIN SEASON.....
2. MORE ECONOMICAL IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES....
3. CATER FOR PERIODS OF UNAVAILABILITY OF OTHER SYSTEM DUE TO MAINTENANCE, REPAIR ETC

THERE CAN BE NUMBER OF OTHER REASONS .....
HERE , " C" MATCHES PERFECTLY.....
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2014, 04:55
egmat wrote:
betterscore wrote:
Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that
freezes immediately on contact with cold air. Because
the sudden freezing kills bacteria, QuickFreeze is
planning to market a wastewater purification system
that works on the same principle. The process works
only when temperatures are cold, however, so
municipalities using it will still need to maintain a
conventional system.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest
grounds for a prediction that municipalities will buy
QuickFreeze's purification system despite the need to
maintain a conventional purification system as well?

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be
removed from wastewater.

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater
purification systems that need to be replaced.

(C) Conventional wastewater purification systems
have not been fully successful in killing bacteria
at cold temperatures.

(D) During times of warm weather, when it is not in
use, QuickFreeze's purification system requires
relatively little maintenance.

(E) Places where the winters are cold rarely have a
problem of water shortage.

Hi,

Let's first understand what QuickFreeze (QF) water-purification system is going to do:
QF is going to kill bacteria at cold temperatures only.
Since this will work only at cold temperatures, municipalities will need to keep conventional water purification systems also.

Now, it is given that municipalities will have conventional water-purification systems, whether they buy QF or not. What would make the municipalities buy QF?

They will buy it only if QF offers something, which conventional systems don't offer.

Now, as we go through the options, we see only option C provides an advantage that QF has over conventional systems. Thus, this is the correct choice.

However, let's also consider option A and B, since some of us have chosen these as the answer choices:

(A) Bacteria are not the only impurities that must be removed from wastewater. - But do conventional systems remove bacteria from wastewater? If they do, why would municipalities buy QF systems?

(B) Many municipalities have old wastewater purification systems that need to be replaced. - Clearly, QF systems can't replace old conventional systems, as is clearly stated. This option statement also doesn't provide any reason for municipalities to buy QF, along with conventional systems.

Hope this helps

Feel free to ask in case of any queries.

Meanwhile, dont forget to attend the SC session on Saturday. Please find the link below:

Regards,
Chiranjeev

Hi Chiranjeevi,

I was confused between C and D, but ended up choosing D. Can you come help me understand what to do in such cases? How to decide which one's the correct answer?
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2015, 11:31
QF uses process X ; Process X only works in cold => QF only work in cold.

Municipalities: ( Use QF) and ( Use conventional system)

C. Conventional system: NOT work in cold.
Municipalities USE ( In cold) and ( NOT in cold)

=> (C)

D. Warm. QF not work. QF require litte maintain.
But, why we use QF if Conventional system work in any weather (both Cold and Not cold)
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Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2015, 07:25
OA is c.

My approach : prediction- Municipalities will buy QF despite the need to maintain a conventional one as well. Strongest ground for this prediction will be something that supports this decision of maintaining QF despite the already present conventional one. Now, why on earth will the municipality buy QF when it already has the conv. one? Only when the QF gives some advantage over the one already in use. So, prethinking on this line, would help you to look out for an option that mentions an ADVANTAGE of QF over the conv. one. Any aspirant who prethinks on this line, is bound to mark the right answer..
Now, lets start with options.
Option A does not address the right issue. We need the option to discuss an ADVANTAGE of QF. Rather this option points out some flaw in the system ( There are other micro organisms present in the water, but sadly, QF cannot help us remove them ). This option, if anything, weakens the prediction. Therefore option A is incorrect.
Option B Fine. Many municipalities might have old waste water systems that need replacement. But then, even if it is true, how does it strengthen the fact that QF is needed despite the conventional one. ( Remember, the question does not want to replace the old systems with QF alone. It wants us to consider a case where QF would be needed despite the conv. one ). Therefore this statement digresses from the main line of prediction . You can also think it from a different angle. Since this option does not deal with the advantage of QF over conv., it's wrong.
Option C is correct , because it rightly discusses the advantage of QF. ( Remember, no one is mad to use QF despite having conv. one if QF has no advantage over the conv. purifier.
Option D This does deal with a good point about the QF. Great!!!. maintenance can be a factor, but its always secondary to the advantage mentioned in Option C. Honestly speaking, this can be the answer, but only when a better option like C is not present.Also, the option might address the fact that QF is great to use, but it does not mention a reason of using it, even when a conventional one is already present.
Option E is straightaway irrelevant.

Hope it helps. Kindly show support..
Re: Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes   [#permalink] 29 Jul 2015, 07:25

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# Snowmaking machines work by spraying a mist that freezes

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