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# So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the

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So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2013, 11:51
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So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

A. and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent,
B. and lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, so that
C. her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that
D. lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent,
E. so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

I think this one of the weird GMAT prep questions... no good explanations in any of the forums... if some one can really go on and dissect it rather than just telling E looks better parallel than others , than KUDOS are waiting for him

My question is what is take away from this question. any similar examples.
Do we not need the 'AND' before second SO.
Do we not need the verb in construction E (is ellipses work here..can some one so another example )
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 21:21
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sujit2k7 wrote:
I think this one of the weird GMAT prep questions... no good explanations in any of the forums... if some one can really go on and dissect it rather than just telling E looks better parallel than others , than KUDOS are waiting for him

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

A. and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent,
B. and lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, so that
C. her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that
D. lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent,
E. so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

My question is what is take away from this question. any similar examples.
Do we not need the 'AND' before second SO.
Do we not need the verb in construction E (is ellipses work here..can some one so another example )

Since the questions are pertaining to the structure of the correct choice, I will only take that one in my response.

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

I will simplify this sentence for my analysis:

So dogged were FP's investigations, so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.

There are certain specific things about the structure of this sentence.

1: Inverted Structure

If this sentence were written in a more straightforward way, it would be as follows:
FP's investigations of the garment industry were so dogged that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
(notice that I have not considered the second element in this sentence for the sake of explanation. I will consider that in my analysis below:) )
Now to come up with the sentence in question, simply flip the order of the SV in the first clause in the simple sentence above. This will get us to the following version:
So dogged were FP's investigations, that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.

2: Idiom used

Let's take the simplified version of the sentence (I will show both inverted and straight sentences)
- FP's investigations of the garment industry were so dogged that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
- So dogged were FP's investigations, that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
So as you can see, the idiom that has been used here is "So x that Y".

3: Two entities connected using a comma

I understand that there are two elements in the list but they have been connected using a comma. Let's consider the straight version of this sentence:
- FP's investigations of the garment industry were so dogged AND her lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
In this version I would have added the second element using an AND.

Now let's consider the inverted structure.
- So dogged were FP's investigations AND so persistent was her lobbying for wage and hour reform that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
Here also I would have added the second element using an AND

So why is there is no AND and a COMMA instead - I do not know. I can almost say that it is a style of writing and certainly not a common style of writing.

4: Ellipsis

As you can see, the second element does not contain a verb. In fact ellipsis is at play here. Here is another sentence with similar ellipsis at play:

Of all the wild animals in their area, none was more useful to the Delaware tribes than the Virginia white- tailed deer: it was a source of meat, and its hide was used for clothing, its antlers and bones were used for tools, and its sinews and gut were used for bindings and glue.

Notice the verb "was used" in the first element.
Notice no verb in the second and third elements. But here ellipsis is at play.

Take away

- Follow the process for solving the question. Eliminate choices on deterministic errors and then consider errors such as punctuation etc. Yes, while you are preparing for GMAT, you must understand the construction of the correct sentence, but when you are in test environment, be confident of your approach and do not second guess yourself if questions such as these appear.

I hope this helps.

Regards,
Payal
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2013, 12:10
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So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

The sentence begins with "So dogged" so we have to complete the idiom with "that": A and D are out.
The right idiom is "so (...) that" not "so (...) so that" as B writes: out B.
Between C and E, I'm afraid to say but it is a parallel problem: the sentence begins with so+adjective E begins with so+adjective, and then copies the entire structure.

C. her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that
E. so persistent(adjective) her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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19 May 2014, 18:14
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Expert's post
paranoidvik wrote:
Very informational post by e-GMAT!
I almost took a little over 2 minutes (30 seconds to choose between C and E) and arrived at E only due to parallelism.
C is in active voice and E is in the same voice as the clause before the underlined part.
Is is safe to assume that this is a 700+ question? I have hardly observed such ellipsis at play questions on the mocks that I have given

Thanks alot @paranoidvik for your kind words of appreciation. It gives us immense pleasure when GMAT community gets benefited from our posts

This question is a 700+ level question. So pat yourself for getting it correct. But at the same time, you took more than 2 minutes to answer it correctly. So you should spend the time learning from this question not just the concept but also the approach. Ask yourself - why did I take longer to answer this question? Why could I not spot the voice difference between choices C and E. In fact this is the key difference between the two close choices. From the meaning of the sentence you should have figured out that there are two things that the author talks about - so dogged was something, so persistent was something. And hence the requirement of making them parallel. So you should definitely introspect why you got tangled in these two choices.

Now coming to ellipsis in this question - There are two official questions in this post itself in which we see such parallelism. Now is such ellipsis application very prevalent - I would say no. But its worth noting such usages down so that you are not stumped by them if you see such usage in the exam environment. From ellipsis standpoint, I suggest you review our article on ellipsis in detail if you have not already done so.

Regards,
Payal
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2013, 08:11
sujit2k7 wrote:
I think this one of the weird GMAT prep questions... no good explanations in any of the forums... if some one can really go on and dissect it rather than just telling E looks better parallel than others , than KUDOS are waiting for him

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

A. and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent,
B. and lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, so that
C. her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that
D. lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent,
E. so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

My question is what is take away from this question. any similar examples.
Do we not need the 'AND' before second SO.
Do we not need the verb in construction E (is ellipses work here..can some one so another example )

This sentence is not neither weird nor strange....is only tough. That's it

When a sentence is tough, forget about grammar rules and go straight to the meaning....the only way to overcome the situation and not get lost.

here after comma si not possible to have straight the subject because this not conveyed the sense of the sentence....you need something that relate the first part with the second part.

So you have to use or so that, that or that. B C and E

So that is wrong ...... quite clear. it is weird

her lobbying...........doesnt have any sense

So persistent ............correct because clearly it refers to Perkins.........

E is the best
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2013, 22:06
but choice E does not have a Verb in it. I discarded it in the first place when i checked So X, So Y, that Z construction.
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2013, 12:33
sujit2k7 wrote:
but choice E does not have a Verb in it. I discarded it in the first place when i checked So X, So Y, that Z construction.

Very nice question!.

First, the author used INVERSION construction. You can simply understand the structure is So X, so Y, and X & Y are two clauses. Nope. This is only one sentence. The second part is an absolute construction.

According to Wikipedia:

"In linguistics, an absolute construction is a grammatical construction standing apart from a normal or usual syntactical relation with other words or sentence elements. It can be a non-finite clause that is subordinate in form and modifies an entire sentence, an adjective or possessive pronoun standing alone without a modified substantive, or a transitive verb when its object is implied but not stated.The term absolute derives from Latin absolūtum, meaning "loosened from" or "separated".

Because the non-finite clause, called the absolute clause (or simply the absolute), is not semantically attached to any single element in the sentence, it is easily confused with a dangling participle. The difference is that the participial phrase of a dangling participle is intended to modify a particular noun, but is instead erroneously attached to a different noun, whereas a participial phrase serving as an absolute clause is not intended to modify any noun at all."

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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2013, 13:52
@pqhai,
Wow sounds interesting... but actually it was bit too technical . Can you please elaborate using one example.
If i m not wrong u mean the second part "so Y" acts as a absolute phrase modifying the first total clause part 'So X'.
Any other gmat prep sc or og sc that we uses similar tech.
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2013, 14:30
sujit2k7 wrote:
@pqhai,
Wow sounds interesting... but actually it was bit too technical . Can you please elaborate using one example.
If i m not wrong u mean the second part "so Y" acts as a absolute phrase modifying the first total clause part 'So X'.
Any other gmat prep sc or og sc that we uses similar tech.

Hi sujit2k7

Yes, it's quite technical. In fact, absolute construction is difficult to use and is rarely used by GMAC.

You're absolutely right. An absolute construction is a secondary clause in a sentence that modifies the whole meaning of the main clause. Hence, "so Y" construction modifies the first part.
Here is one example: so beautiful her hair, Mary walked down the street.

Hope it helps.
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 16:36
sujit2k7 wrote:
I think this one of the weird GMAT prep questions... no good explanations in any of the forums... if some one can really go on and dissect it rather than just telling E looks better parallel than others , than KUDOS are waiting for him

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

A. and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent,
B. and lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, so that
C. her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that
D. lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent,
E. so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

My question is what is take away from this question. any similar examples.
Do we not need the 'AND' before second SO.
Do we not need the verb in construction E (is ellipses work here..can some one so another example )

This indeed is a very difficult question. However, even if you were wondering why there is no "and" rather than a comma as I did, you could have answered the question using process of elimination, and parallelism when you are deciding between C and E. I must say that the way the absolute phrase is used in this sentence is awkward, though grammatically correct.
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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16 May 2014, 19:19
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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17 May 2014, 12:43
Very informational post by e-GMAT!
I almost took a little over 2 minutes (30 seconds to choose between C and E) and arrived at E only due to parallelism.
C is in active voice and E is in the same voice as the clause before the underlined part.
Is is safe to assume that this is a 700+ question? I have hardly observed such ellipsis at play questions on the mocks that I have given
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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20 May 2014, 02:27
I have gone through all the mails posted by people in the above posts.

However I am still not clear why the correct option E actually does not use "and" in between the 2 parts of the sentence (So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, AND so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform).

Without the use of "and", option E really sounds very strange. So is there a grammar rule that someone can help me with, that is working in option E.
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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2014, 06:25
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BOOKMARKED
egmat wrote:
sujit2k7 wrote:
I think this one of the weird GMAT prep questions... no good explanations in any of the forums... if some one can really go on and dissect it rather than just telling E looks better parallel than others , than KUDOS are waiting for him

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

A. and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent,
B. and lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, so that
C. her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that
D. lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent,
E. so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

My question is what is take away from this question. any similar examples.
Do we not need the 'AND' before second SO.
Do we not need the verb in construction E (is ellipses work here..can some one so another example )

Since the questions are pertaining to the structure of the correct choice, I will only take that one in my response.

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

I will simplify this sentence for my analysis:

So dogged were FP's investigations, so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.

There are certain specific things about the structure of this sentence.

1: Inverted Structure

If this sentence were written in a more straightforward way, it would be as follows:
FP's investigations of the garment industry were so dogged that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
(notice that I have not considered the second element in this sentence for the sake of explanation. I will consider that in my analysis below:) )
Now to come up with the sentence in question, simply flip the order of the SV in the first clause in the simple sentence above. This will get us to the following version:
So dogged were FP's investigations, that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.

2: Idiom used

Let's take the simplified version of the sentence (I will show both inverted and straight sentences)
- FP's investigations of the garment industry were so dogged that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
- So dogged were FP's investigations, that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
So as you can see, the idiom that has been used here is "So x that Y".

3: Two entities connected using a comma

I understand that there are two elements in the list but they have been connected using a comma. Let's consider the straight version of this sentence:
- FP's investigations of the garment industry were so dogged AND her lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
In this version I would have added the second element using an AND.

Now let's consider the inverted structure.
- So dogged were FP's investigations AND so persistent was her lobbying for wage and hour reform that AES and FDR recruited Perkins to work within the government.
Here also I would have added the second element using an AND

So why is there is no AND and a COMMA instead - I do not know. I can almost say that it is a style of writing and certainly not a common style of writing.

4: Ellipsis

As you can see, the second element does not contain a verb. In fact ellipsis is at play here. Here is another sentence with similar ellipsis at play:

Of all the wild animals in their area, none was more useful to the Delaware tribes than the Virginia white- tailed deer: it was a source of meat, and its hide was used for clothing, its antlers and bones were used for tools, and its sinews and gut were used for bindings and glue.

Notice the verb "was used" in the first element.
Notice no verb in the second and third elements. But here ellipsis is at play.

Take away

- Follow the process for solving the question. Eliminate choices on deterministic errors and then consider errors such as punctuation etc. Yes, while you are preparing for GMAT, you must understand the construction of the correct sentence, but when you are in test environment, be confident of your approach and do not second guess yourself if questions such as these appear.

I hope this helps.

Regards,
Payal

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Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2015, 23:47
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Re: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the   [#permalink] 15 Oct 2015, 23:47
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