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# Social scientists have traditionally defined multipolar international

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ShubhamPatil wrote:
Loved the passage! It has a good mix of concept and it's contradiction; hence making the understanding of passage so critical.

Sajjad1994 can you please help me with explanation for Q5. I was stuck between option A and D as both are mentioned in the passage in different context.

ShubhamPatil If you look at the first paragraph below, you will see that it mentions "stability resulting from the counterbalancing typical of multipolar systems.
Quote:
Yet the constant and inevitable
counterbalancing typical of such systems usually
results in stability. The best-known example of a
(15) multipolar system is the Concert of Europe, which
coincided with general peace on that continent lasting
roughly 100 years beginning around 1815.

Quote:
(A) Each of the many small confrontations that occurred under the Concert of Europe threatened the integrity of the system.

Option A says that small confrontations within the Concert of E threatened the integrity of the system. Which part of the passage hints towards this?
Quote:
(D) Equilibrium in the system was maintained as members grouped together to counterbalance mutual threats.

This closely parallels our understanding of the first paragraph. The main purpose of the multipolar system was to provide security against the bigger (more stronger) mutual threats. And the mention of Concert of Europe as the Best Example of Multipolar system is to further strengthen the concept of multipolar system with reference to peace in Europe from 1815-1915. So, Option E can be deduced logically from it.

I hope this helped you clear your doubt between A and D.
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AkankshaUniyal wrote:

Explanation

4. With respect to the Cold War, the author’s attitude can most accurately be described as

Difficulty Level: Medium

Explanation

You should begin Author’s Attitude questions by identifying where in the text the author clearly states his or her opinion. Then determine whether the author is generally positive or negative as a way to eliminate several wrong answer choices quickly.

The question stem asks us to consider the author’s attitude towards the Cold War. His opinions are stated in the final paragraph, in which he extends his reassessment of bipolar and multipolar systems to the Cold War. We see there that he thinks it “created the necessary parameters for general peace”. That phrase matches well with choice (C).

(A)—the author is somewhat positive about the bipolar system of the Cold War, insofar as he says that it contributed to stability. “Fearful” is thus out.

(B)“created the parameters for general peace” hardly sounds like “surprised that it did not end with a major war”.

(D) uses the term “regretful,” which injects far more emotion into the passage than is there. The author writes in a dry, scholarly tone the entire time.

(E) talks about what “will” happen, and is inappropriate because the author’s consideration of the Cold War in the final paragraph doesn’t concern itself with the future.