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Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo

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Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied. Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with modern nonforager societies.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism made above of the anthropologists' strategy?

(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.

(B) Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.

(C) All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.

(D) Many anthropologists who study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient societies on the basis of their studies.

(E) Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are importantly different from ancient forager societies.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2004, 20:37
Bhai wrote:
4. Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied. Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with modern nonforager societies.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism made above of the anthropologists’ strategy?
(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.
(B) Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.
(C) All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.
(D) Many anthropologists who study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient societies on the basis of their studies.
(E) Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are importantly different from ancient forager societies.


D for me.

premise: anthropologists learn abt foragers from modern day foragers.

argument: modern-day foragers are in contact with society, if ANTH. draw conclusions based on their study on modern-day foragers, it, possiblym is tainted.

What if they don't draw any inference/conclusion?

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2004, 00:35
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My ans is A. See, in the stem it said " A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied". So A "a number of important features in common" most weaken the argument.
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2004, 00:54
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E after spending 1 min 54s.

Now coming to the analysis:

Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied. Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with modern nonforager societies.

Argument: Anthropologists study modern-day forager societies to learn more abt. our ancestors.
Criticism: (i) Forager societies are extremely varied.
(ii) All the forager societies which anthropologists know about have contact with modern non-forager societies. Therefore, any conclusions made abt. our ancestors are bound to be wrong, as the behaviour of modern day foragers is affected by being in contact with non-foragers.

To weaken the criticism:

A--> states that Foragers throughout history have had features in common
This will for sure weaken (i)

B-->Strengthens (ii), therefore eliminate this option

C--> I don't see the relevance - IMO, this neither strengthens/weakens the criticisms

D--> Do not draw inferences - but the criticism is that the study in itself is useless - I eliminate this option too

E--> Strengthens (i)

Therefore the answer should be A

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2004, 01:07
A and agree with Bigtooth's explanation. Took me 3 min.
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2004, 01:19
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Paul, if this were the question that we encounter in GMAT, spending 3 min would build a lot of pressure. Do you suggest a strategy to questions of this type?

I spent nearly 2 min and still got it wrong! :((

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2004, 02:05
A.
(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.

This clearly weeknes the criticism that the study has flaws.

Spent quite a bit of time,need to work on speeding up.
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2004, 03:19
A it is. The other choices strengthen the criticism.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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I pick A.
Not D because the argument is "the strategy picked by researchers is flawed." The fact that they don't draw inferences based on their studies does not impact the argument at all.
Hope it helps.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2011, 09:57
A is the answer ,

All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.

that is self explanatory.
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2012, 23:54
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Indien wrote:
Not D because the argument is "the strategy picked by researchers is flawed." The fact that they don't draw inferences based on their studies does not impact the argument at all.
Hope it helps.


D is also wrong because the question stem is concerned with anthropologists who draw inferences about ancestral foragers' societies from studies of current societies. The question stem isn't concerned with those don't.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2012, 01:16
(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.
clearly weakens the argument, which states that "......... that forager societies are extremely varied........"
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2013, 07:37
(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.

Defeats the arg. that thr is a flaw in the study done by the anthro.

(B) Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.

Then the anthro.'s efforts are of no use....no information could be obtained from Foragers as they no longer exist...Strengthens the flaw

(C) All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.

Defn of anthro......thank you!....no use

(D) Many anthropologists who study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient societies on the basis of their studies.

Again...the results from the Anthro. are then doubtful...and no link could be est. between the past and the present if the inferences are corrupt..........strengthens.

(E) Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are importantly different from ancient forager societies

Strngthns...sort of.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2013, 21:58
Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied. Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with modern nonforager societies.

We have to find the paraphrase which will weaken the criticism "A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied
means somehow prove that forager societies are not varied extremely and have something in common.
clearly Option "A" is doing this!!
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient
ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied.
Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with
modern, non-forager societies.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism made above of the anthropologists' strategy?
(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are
absent from other types of societies.
(B) Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.
(C) All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.
(D) Many anthropologistswho study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient
societies on the basis of their studies.
(E) Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are
importantly different from ancient forager societies.

[spoiler=][A]

Hi Chiranjeev,

This is a weakening question and i am confused between 2 choices A & D. To me both of them are weakening.
A. It states that there are common characteristics among forager societies. So, it weakens the conclusion in a way by weakening the two criticism points - societies are varied and contact with other modern societies- stated to draw the conclusion that anthropologists should not study ancient forager socities from modern ones. Hence, it is a weakener
D. It states that anthropologists do not take inferences from the studies. Again, this seems a valid weakener as it weakens the conclusion that anthropologists would not be taking any inferences as per the study in their understanding of Ancient forager societies and makes the criticism invalid.
Can you please explain how D is incorrect and also if my explanation for A is fine ?
Also, could you please state the conclusion for the argument.
The conclusion i was able to draw is :
The study by some anthropologists on modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient
ancestors but this study is flawed.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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shlbatra wrote:
Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient
ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied.
Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with
modern, non-forager societies.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism made above of the anthropologists' strategy?
(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are
absent from other types of societies.
(B) Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.
(C) All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.
(D) Many anthropologistswho study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient
societies on the basis of their studies.
(E) Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are
importantly different from ancient forager societies.

[spoiler=][A]

Hi Chiranjeev,

This is a weakening question and i am confused between 2 choices A & D. To me both of them are weakening.
A. It states that there are common characteristics among forager societies. So, it weakens the conclusion in a way by weakening the two criticism points - societies are varied and contact with other modern societies- stated to draw the conclusion that anthropologists should not study ancient forager socities from modern ones. Hence, it is a weakener
D. It states that anthropologists do not take inferences from the studies. Again, this seems a valid weakener as it weakens the conclusion that anthropologists would not be taking any inferences as per the study in their understanding of Ancient forager societies and makes the criticism invalid.
Can you please explain how D is incorrect and also if my explanation for A is fine ?
Also, could you please state the conclusion for the argument.
The conclusion i was able to draw is :
The study by some anthropologists on modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient
ancestors but this study is flawed.


Hi,

Your explanation for A is correct.

First of all the conclusion of this passage is:

The strategy to study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers, is flawed.

In shortened form, the conclusion is: The given strategy used by anthropologists is flawed.

Now. coming to option D, there is a problem with option D: it either goes against the information presented in the passage or does not affect the conclusion.

Let's understand the two cases:

Case 1: When we say that drawing inferences about a population is same as learning about that population.
This is most plausible understanding of "inferences" used in option D. IF you are studying modern societies and saying that you are learning about ancient ancestors, then in all probability, you are drawing inferences about ancestors based on your observation of modern societies.
If we understand the meaning of "inferences" as such, then option D goes against the first statement of the passage:
"Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers"

Since option D goes against the information presented in the passage, it is incorrect.

Case 2: when we say "drawing inferences" is different from learning
In this case, what we are saying is that anthropologists are learning about ancient ancestors but they are not drawing inferences about them.

In such a case, option D does not affect the conclusion because the conclusion talks about a strategy to learn about ancient ancestors. The conclusion says that this strategy is flawed. Whether anthropologists draw inferences or not does not affect the conclusion as long as they learn about ancient ancestors from the study.

Does this help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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Bhai wrote:
4. Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effort to learn about our ancient ancestors who were also foragers. A flaw in this strategy is that forager societies are extremely varied. Indeed, any forager society with which anthropologists are familiar has had considerable contact with modern nonforager societies.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism made above of the anthropologists’ strategy?

(A) All forager societies throughout history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other types of societies.
(B) Most ancient forager societies either dissolved or made a transition to another way of life.
(C) All anthropologists study one kind or another of modern-day society.
(D) Many anthropologists who study modern-day forager societies do not draw inferences about ancient societies on the basis of their studies.
(E) Even those modern-day forager societies that have not had significant contact with modern societies are importantly different from ancient forager societies.


You know what is the toughest thing about this questions? To properly find the conclusion.
The conclusion is that a flaw in this strategy is that they are extremely varied.

We want to weaken the criticism which is in fact the conclusion so we should keep focused here.
Naturally, A does a great job and straightly attacks the conclusion by saying the opposite. Tears it apart totally

So yeah, A is the right one
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2014, 22:21
Hi Chiranjeev,

Can you please help me understand why option E is wrong for this?

Option E says that modern day foragers who had contact with other societies are also not influenced. So it goes against the argument which says that we cannot learn about ancient foragers by studying modern foragers.

Please let me know where i have gone wrong.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2014, 22:46
deepak824 wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,

Can you please help me understand why option E is wrong for this?

Option E says that modern day foragers who had contact with other societies are also not influenced. So it goes against the argument which says that we cannot learn about ancient foragers by studying modern foragers.

Please let me know where i have gone wrong.


Hi Deepak,

Thank you for your post.

Unfortunately, you have not understood choice E correctly. :(

Choice E talks about those modern-day forager societies that have NOT had much contact with modern societies. In your post, who have defined these societies in exactly the opposite terms. Another key thing that you have missed in choice E is that as per this option these modern-day forager societies, despite having had limited contact with other modern societies, are distinct from ancient forager societies.

In the light of the above analysis, do you think choice E strengthens the criticism noted in the argument or weakens the same?

Thanks,

Neeti.
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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2014, 23:10
Hi,

I have read the explanations in the OG as well as on the forums regarding why answer choice D is incorrect, however am still having a hard time wrapping my head around it.

On one hand I see answer choice D "many anthropologists who study modern-day foragers societies do not draw inferences about ancient societies on the basis of their studies" as since they do not draw inferences then there is no flaw is in this strategy of studying modern-day societies to learn about ancient foragers. Hence it weakens the criticism that there is a flaw.

On another hand, as per OG explanation, if the anthropologists do not draw inferences because the comparison is not useful, then it could also support the criticism that there is a flaw.

I seem to be going in circles and would like to kindly check if anyone can help me understand what is wrong with answer choice D, and why it is not better than A.

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Re: Some anthropologists study modern-day societies of foragers in an effo   [#permalink] 28 Mar 2014, 23:10

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